You must read and accept the disclaimer to use this site. Updated for Aug 3,, 2010

AJCN Oct, 2010 -
SUMMARY
- See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles further down this page at DETAILS at www.nutritioninvestigator.org.

WEIGHT CONTROL - 7. Current USDA dietary guidelines do not prevent obesity - The new food pyramid is still ineffective.
1. Diet counseling and exercise aid correct gestational weight gain - Excessive weight gain may harm mother and child weight control permanently.
2. Counseling is an effective weight reduction strategy for those with sleep apnea
3. Children will eat anything - Eating in the absence of hunger is observable and positively related to body weight regardless of whether youth eat in the absence of hunger from a very large-array meal or from a standardized meal.

GOOD NEWS
9. Optimal vitamin D reduces risk of cancer, heart disease, and death - Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of death and cancer . Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality. Ideal vitamin D corresponds to a dose of about 2,000 IU daily (study).
12. Mediterranean diet helps prevent obesity - The Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern (MDP) observed in the olive-growing areas of the Mediterranean region during the early 1960s, and it is characterized by the following: a high consumption of olive oil, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruit, and vegetables; a moderate consumption of dairy products, mostly as cheese and yogurt; moderate wine consumption; a moderate-to-high consumption of fish; and a low consumption of meat and meat products. Results: Individuals with a high adherence to the MDP showed a 5-y weight change of –0.16 kg, and were 10% less likely to be obese.
4. Eating oat fiber reduces your LDL level
5. Whole grain foods reduce blood pressure - Three portions daily significantly reduce BP and could reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk by 15-25%.
13. Coffee consumption lowers to risk of gout
16. Moderate coffee and alcohol reduce diabetes risk

HAZARDS FOR MANY 17. Low carb diet increases risk of death
10. High fat diet (like Atkins) leads to kidney disease
15. Sweetened soda consumption (SSB) increases heart disease risk - [Listen to Coke is the drink of the death squad]
11. Diets high in glycemic index, load and starch and low in fiber increase diabetes risk
6. Foods with lower glycemic index (GI) reduce diabetes risk
14. Your weight is likely to be similar that of your parents
19. Soldiers use supplements like civilians do

COMPLICATED 8. The interrelations between energy expenditure and body composition during adulthood are complex and appear to vary with life stage and with sex.
18. Key to weight control may be gene expression changes caused by exercise

AJCN Oct, 2010 -DETAILS

1. Diet counseling and exercise aid correct gestational weight gain - Excessive weight gain may harm mother and child weight control permanently.

2. Counseling is an effective weight reduction strategy for those with sleep apnea - Favorable changes achieved by a 1-y lifestyle intervention aimed at weight reduction with a healthy diet and physical activity were sustained in overweight patients with mild OSA after the termination of supervised lifestyle counseling.

3. Children will eat anything - Eating in the absence of hunger is observable and positively related to body weight regardless of whether youth eat in the absence of hunger from a very large-array meal or from a standardized meal.

4. Eating oat fiber reduces your LDL level - The article describes how quantity and quality of fiber affects the ability to remove cholesterol.

5. Whole grain foods reduce blood pressure - Three portions daily significantly reduce BP and could reduce stroke and cardiovascular disease risk by 15-25%.

6. Foods with lower glycemic index (GI) reduce diabetes risk - This study did not support the hypothesis that isoenergetic replacement of Saturated Fats with Monounsaturated Fats or carbohydrates has a favorable effect on Insulin sensitivity (Si). Lowering GI enhanced reductions in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in subjects, with tentative evidence of improvements in Si in the low-fat-treatment group.

7. Current USDA dietary guidelines do not prevent obesity - The new food pyramid is still ineffective. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that a diet consistent with the 2005 DGA benefits long-term weight maintenance in American young adults. Greater need for attention to obesity prevention in future DGAs is warranted.

8. The interrelations between energy expenditure and body composition during adulthood are complex and appear to vary with life stage and with sex. During the first half of adulthood, individuals gradually accumulate body fat (1–4), but the extent of accumulation differs widely. Low energy expenditure, due either to low basal energy demands (5–7) or to low physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) (8, 9), have both been suggested to contribute to the energy imbalance that influences the extent of this increasing fat deposition. However, other studies have disputed these associations with basal (10) and AEE (5, 11, 12). Basal energy expenditure (BEE), however, clearly depends on the amount of metabolizing tissue (13), with independent effects of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) observed in many studies (14–23). Age has also been suggested to have a direct effect on tissue basal metabolic rate (15, 24–28), and consequently, the actual change in BEE with age is a balance between this direct negative effect and an increase due to the expanding quantity of respiring tissue. Physical activity level (PAL) and AEE were not associated with age in subjects aged <52 y. AEE, BEE, and PAL were all negatively associated with age in subjects aged ≥52 y.

9. Optimal vitamin D reduces risk of cancer, heart disease, and death - Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of death and cancer . Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality. Ideal is 70-90 nmol/L serum. This corresponds to a dose of about 2,000 IU daily (study).

10. High fat diet (like Atkins) leads to kidney disease - Although a number of experimental animal models have suggested that hyperlipidemia is associated with progressive kidney failure. Conclusion: Higher saturated fat intake is significantly associated with the presence of high albuminuria.

11. Diets high in glycemic index, load and starch and low in fiber increase diabetes risk - Both carbohydrate quantity and quality seem to be important factors in diabetes prevention.

12. Mediterranean diet helps prevent obesity - The Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern (MDP) observed in the olive-growing areas of the Mediterranean region during the early 1960s, and it is characterized by the following: a high consumption of olive oil, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruit, and vegetables; a moderate consumption of dairy products, mostly as cheese and yogurt; moderate wine consumption; a moderate-to-high consumption of fish; and a low consumption of meat and meat products. Results: Individuals with a high adherence to the MDP showed a 5-y weight change of –0.16 kg, and were 10% less likely to be obese.

13. Coffee consumption lowers to risk of gout

14. Your weight is likely to be similar that of your parents - Results: Maternal and paternal BMI were positively associated with offspring BMI in both childhood and midadulthood, and the strength of the association did not diminish with offspring age. Maternal BMI was associated with several offspring lifestyle factors across adulthood. These associations are largely unaffected by adjustment for a wide range of lifestyle factors. Offspring of obese parents are an important target for interventions aimed at reducing population levels of overweight and obesity.

15. Sweetened soda consumption (SSB) increases heart disease risk - Consumers of whole-fat milk and SSBs were more likely to be younger, black, and male and to have lower levels of physical activity and higher total energy intake in comparison with nonconsumers. Our findings suggest that higher SSB consumption is associated with cardiometabolic risk. [Listen to Coke is the drink of the death squad]

16. Moderate coffee and alcohol reduce diabetes risk - Our results suggest that African American women who drink moderate amounts of caffeinated coffee or alcohol have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.

17. Low carb diet increases risk of death - Conclusion: Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern reduced mortality, whereas adherence to a CR dietary pattern appeared to increase mortality in elderly Swedish men.

18. Key to weight control may be gene expression changes caused by exercise - Background: The mechanisms underlying body weight evolution after diet-induced weight loss are poorly understood. Objective: We aimed to identify and characterize differences in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transcriptome of subjects with different weight changes after energy restriction–induced weight loss during 6 mo on 4 different diets. Conclusions: The ability to control body weight loss independent of energy intake or diet composition is reflected in the SAT transcriptome. Although cell proliferation may be detrimental, a greater mitochondrial energy gene expression is suggested as being beneficial for weight control.

19. Soldiers use supplements like civilians do

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-Roc, Nutrition Investigator

My philosophy of teaching is that you must say yes to life-to everything in life, even failures and disappointments. If you can't say yes to life, don't be a teacher. - "Margret Dietz", book written by and available for purchase from freemane@beloit.edu

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