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AJCN Oct, 2008 - The October American Journal of Clinical Nutrition- Below are the headlines.  The numbers show where the extracts are at my web site.  Each extract is linked to the actual online article that has all of the details.

SUMMARY - Here's my summary, with more at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln08octajcn.htm:
You know to take vitamin D and fish oil supplements, eat yogurt and nuts, and drink coffee and tea.
1. After childhood, vitamin D is important for bones, but dairy calcium (not calcium supplements) helps weight control
2. Fish oil reduces risk of heart disease
3. Yogurt reduces risk of bladder cancer
4. Eating nuts reduces risk for heart disease
5. Coffee and tea reduce risk for diabetes

And not to eat very much meat, high carbohydrate/sugary foods and drinks, or any transfats.
6. Modern [lots of meat] diet promotes osteoporosis
7. Sugary foods destroy your eyes
8. Trans fats cause harmful inflammation

Do you know to eat yogurt and take fishoil when pregnant?
9. Enjoy yoghurt when pregnant
10. Fish oil during pregnancy improves offspring's eyesight for life

Here’s discoveries that are novel -
11. Dieting causes long-term shutdown of ability to burn Calories
12. Eat protein, but do not overeat, during bed rest, or muscles are destroyed
13. Genes being identified for obesity and nutrition
14. Soluble fiber supplements with glucommannan may reduce bad cholesterol levels

DETAILS -
1. After childhood, vitamin D is important for bones, but dairy calcium (not calcium supplements) helps weight control - "Observational studies almost invariably show an inverse association between the intake of dietary calcium and body fatness, which suggests that calcium influences energy balance favorably in the growing groups of people with weight problems...They proposed that dietary calcium, via its influence on plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) concentrations, regulates the concentrations of intracellular adipocyte calcium and by this means regulates fat metabolism in the adipocytes. According to this hypothesis, a low dietary calcium intake inhibits lipolysis, stimulates de novo lipogenesis, and decreases fat oxidation; through these mechanisms, a low dietary calcium intake leads to weight gain, whereas a high dietary calcium intake exerts the opposite effects. ..[BUT THIS IS REFUTED HERE. However,] dairy calcium exerts a much stronger effect on body weight than does supplementary calcium. Dietary calcium also binds some fat in the gastrointestinal tract and keeps it unavailable for absorption, which in turn reduces postprandial lipidemia and increases fecal fat excretion (5). Dairy calcium may be much more effective in this respect than other forms of calcium (7)."

2. Fish oil reduces risk of heart disease -"Conclusions: This study indicates that the dietary intake of long-chain n–3 PUFAs [fish oil, omega-3 fats] or nonfried fish is associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis "

3. Yogurt reduces risk of bladder cancer - "Conclusion:These findings suggest that a high intake of cultured milk may lower the risk of developing bladder cancer."

4. Eating nuts reduces risk for heart disease - 1 in every 5 adults will develop heart failure during the remaining life time. Healthy diet, exercise, not smoking, and maintaining healthy weight were shown to favorably influence heart failure risk factors, including coronary artery disease (2-6), diabetes (7-11), and hypertension(12, 13). Nut consumption was previously associated with improved blood pressure (14-18), lower risk of diabetes (19), weight loss (20), and lower risk of sudden death or death of coronary heart disease (21).

5. Coffee and tea reduce risk for diabetes - "Background: Increasing coffee intake was inversely associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in populations of European descent"

6. Modern [lots of meat] diet promotes osteoporosis - [This may be complicated to understand. A meat diet is much more acidic than a vegetarian diet, and this study shows that acidic diet causes calcium loss, which is likely to be from your skeleton.] "Objectives: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the quantity of net acid excretion and calciuria associated with the modern diet, to assess the association between acid excretion and calcium excretion, ...Conclusion: Evidence suggests a linear association between changes in calcium excretion in response to experimental changes in net acid excretion."

7. Sugary foods destroy your eyes - " Conclusions: A high-glycemic-index diet is a risk factor for early age-related macular degeneration (AMD)—the recognized precursor of sight-threatening late AMD. Low-glycemic-index foods such as oatmeal may protect against early AMD.

8. Trans fats cause harmful inflammation - "Conclusions: Higher intakes of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are associated with elevated concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers, whereas higher intakes of non-hydrogenated vegetable oils are associated with lower plasma concentrations of these biomarkers. "

9. Enjoy yoghurt when pregnant - "Background: Results of experimental studies suggest that deviations in gut microbiota composition predispose to excessive energy storage and obesity. The mother influences the original inoculum and the development of infant microbiota, which in turn is associated with later weight gain...Conclusions: Gut microbiota composition and weight are linked, and mother's weight gain is affected by microbiota. Microbiota modification before and during pregnancy may offer new directions for preventive and therapeutic applications in reducing the risk of overweight and obesity."

10. Fish oil during pregnancy improves offspring's eyesight for life - "Conclusion: The DHA requirement of preterm infants may be higher than currently provided by preterm formula or HM of Australian women." 1% DHA in formula was much more effective in producing good eyesight in babies than current formula that only provides 0.3% DHA.

11. Dieting causes long-term shutdown of ability to burn Calories - [which means exercise, not food restriction, is the way to lose weight effectively] "Background: After weight loss, total energy expenditure—in particular, energy expenditure at low levels of physical activity—is lower than predicted by actual changes in body weight and composition. An important clinical issue is whether this reduction, which predisposes to weight regain, persists over time...Conclusion: Declines in energy expenditure favoring the regain of lost weight persist well beyond the period of dynamic weight loss."

12. Eat protein, but do not overeat, during bed rest, or muscle are destroyed - "Conclusions: Positive energy balance during inactivity is associated with greater muscle atrophy and with activation of systemic inflammation and of antioxidant defenses. Optimizing caloric intake may be a useful strategy for mitigating muscle loss during period of chronic inactivity."

13. Genes being identified for obesity and nutrition - "Background: A region of chromosome 16 containing the fat mass–and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is reproducibly associated with fat mass and body mass index (BMI), risk of obesity, and adiposity." Nutrition investigator thinks the nutrigenomics revolution is coming. Within 20 years, we will get our DNA sequenced and get insight in how to eat even more effectively for great health.

14. Soluble fiber supplements with glucommannan may reduce bad cholesterol levels - "Conclusions: Glucomannan appears to beneficially affect total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, and FBG, but not HDL cholesterol or BP." Glucomannan is a soluble fiber derived from Amorphophallus konjac and is available in numerous over-the-counter products such as Lipozene.

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