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J Nutrition October, 2006

[Politics of nutrition]Which Dietary Reference Intake Is Best Suited to Serve as the Basis for Nutrition Labeling for Daily Values?J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2457-2462 " The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is currently reviewing regulations on nutrition labeling to better address current health issues as well as updating nutrient daily values (DVs), most of which are still based on recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) established in 1968. ...Concerns about these recommendations focus on the appropriate role of the Nutrition Facts panel, 1 of the 3 major public nutrition education tools in the United States (along with MyPyramid and Dietary Guidelines for Americans). Providing a benchmark or standard that knowingly has only a 50% chance of meeting a consuming individual's requirement is not appropriate. The DV on a Nutrition Facts panel should provide useful guidance to the individual about how a serving will assist in meeting that person's goal for consumption, and thus it should be based on the RDA or adequate intake, rather than the EAR, and be derived from the highest recommended intake, as has been the practice since 1973."

[A cookie designed to lower cholesterol] A Combination Therapy Including Psyllium and Plant Sterols Lowers LDL Cholesterol by Modifying Lipoprotein Metabolism in Hypercholesterolemic Individuals J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2492-2497 " We conducted a randomized, double blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study to determine the effects of a combination therapy including plant sterols (PS) and psyllium (PSY), provided via cookies,...Plasma total cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced for all subjects,...Because smaller LDL particles are associated with an increased risk of heart disease and because smaller HDL particles are indicative of diminished reverse cholesterol transport, we conclude that the combination therapy resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile. .."

Epigallocatechin Gallate Supplementation Alleviates Diabetes in Rodents J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2512-2518 " As the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing at an alarming rate, effective nutritional and exercise strategies for the prevention of this disease are required...This study shows that EGCG beneficially modifies glucose and lipid metabolism in H4IIE cells and markedly enhances glucose tolerance in diabetic rodents. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus."

[eat an egg a day for eyes] Consumption of One Egg Per Day Increases Serum Lutein and Zeaxanthin Concentrations in Older Adults without Altering Serum Lipid and Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentrations J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2519-2524 " Lutein and zeaxanthin accumulate in the macular pigment of the retina, and are reported to be associated with a reduced incidence of age-related macular degeneration. A rich source of lutein and zeaxanthin in the American diet is the yolk of chicken eggs. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of consuming 1 egg/d for 5 wk on the serum concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, lipids, and lipoprotein cholesterol in individuals >60 y of age. ..These findings indicate that in older adults, 5 wk of consuming 1 egg/d significantly increases serum lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations without elevating serum lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations."

[pay attention to elderly] Nutritional Status Is Altered in the Self-Neglecting Elderly J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2534-2541 " Elder self-neglect is the most common form of elder mistreatment. Individuals who cannot provide basic needs for themselves may develop social, functional, and physical deficits. ..These differences in markers of nutritional status show that the self-neglecting elderly are at risk for altered nutritional status, particularly of folate, antioxidants, and vitamin D. .."

[olives reduce colon cancer risk] Olive Fruit Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2553-2557 "Olives and their derivatives represent an important component of the Mediterranean diet that has been considered to be protective against cancer. We investigated the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in HT-29 cells of an extract from the skin of olives ...Our results report for the first time, to our knowledge, the inhibition of cell proliferation without cytotoxicity and the restoration of apoptosis in colon cancer cells by maslinic and oleanolic acids present in olive fruit extracts. "

[avoid trans-fats!] Trans Fatty Acids in Human Milk in Canada Declined with the Introduction of Trans Fat Food Labeling
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2558-2561 "Trans fatty acids in human milk have raised concerns because of possible adverse effects on infant growth and development. Analyses of human milk in the late 1990s in Canada showed high amounts of trans fatty acids from partially hydrogenated oils. Canada introduced labeling of trans fatty acids on retail foods in 2003. ...Our studies show trans fatty acids have decreased in human milk in Canada, which suggests a concomitant decrease in trans fatty acid intake among lactating women and breast-fed infants."

[eggs for eyesight] A 12-Wk Egg Intervention Increases Serum Zeaxanthin and Macular Pigment Optical Density in Women J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2568-2573 " Two carotenoids found in egg yolk, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in the macular retina where they may reduce photostress. Increases in serum lutein and zeaxanthin were observed in previous egg interventions, but no study measured macular carotenoids...Although the aggregate concentration of carotenoid in 1 egg yolk may be modest relative to other sources, such as spinach, their bioavailability to the retina appears to be high. Increasing egg consumption to 6 eggs/wk may be an effective method to increase MPOD."

[get enough vitamin E] alpha-Tocopherol Intake and Plasma Concentration of Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Elders Is Associated with Dietary Intake Pattern J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2574-2579 "alpha-Tocopherol from foods has been associated with protection against several chronic diseases and maintenance of immune function. However, most people do not meet current recommendations for intake...A large proportion of these elders (>90%) have inadequate intake of -tocopherol, and plasma concentrations were associated with intake patterns."

[fruit and veggie pills work] Immunity and Antioxidant Capacity in Humans Is Enhanced by Consumption of a Dried, Encapsulated Fruit and Vegetable Juice Concentrate J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2606-2610 " The daily consumption of fruits and vegetables is a common dietary recommendation to support good health. We hypothesized that a commercially available encapsulated fruit and vegetable juice powder concentrate (FVJC) could support functional indices of health due to increased intake of various phytonutrients...Plasma levels of vitamin C and of ß-carotene, lycopene, and lutein increased significantly from baseline in the FVJC group as did plasma oxygen radical absorptive capacity (50%)..."

[vitamin C important again influenza] Vitamin C Deficiency Increases the Lung Pathology of Influenza Virus–Infected Gulo–/– Mice J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2611-2616 " This study was designed to determine the effects of vitamin C deficiency on the immune response to infection with influenza virus...These data suggest that vitamin C is required for an adequate immune response in limiting lung pathology after influenza virus infection."

[SAMe is important, so is folate] A Mathematical Model Gives Insights into Nutritional and Genetic Aspects of Folate-Mediated One-Carbon Metabolism J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2653-2661. " Impaired folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism has been linked to multiple disease outcomes. A better understanding of the nutritional and genetic influences on this complex biochemical pathway is needed to comprehend their impact on human health. To this end, we created a mathematical model of folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism. ..We found that the model predictions match experimental data,...the modeling predicts that decrease MTHFR activity reduces concentrations of S-adenosylmethionine..."

SYMPOSIUM: Biomarkers as Indicators of Cancer Risk Reduction Following Dietary Manipulation:

You must subscribe to see this, but the article titles at the end of the index linked above show dramatic and exciting progress relating to cancer, diet and physical activity, proving the connection, and finding easy tests to demonstrate whether your diet is preventing or causing you to develop cancer. Much has to do with the importance of eating particular compounds found in specific fruits and vegetables, and how that food helps you cope with "xenobiotics." Xenobiotics are chemicals in our environment that cause cancer, which our livers can destroy if we have a good diet.



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