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AJCN Oct, 2006

[ALERT TO NEW PARENTS: Parent choices in baby's first years determines future obesity]Determinants of overweight in a cohort of Dutch children Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 717-724 "Conclusions: In this homogeneous cohort of normal-weight to moderately overweight children, tracking of BMI during childhood took place from the first year of life. Overweight at age 12 y was predicted by an early rapid increase in BW and parental influences. Overweight during childhood may be maintained or even promoted by a high dietary restraint score and low physical activity." [Ed. translation and notes- It is very important to breastfeed babies for at least six months because bottle feeding leads to overfeeding. It is also important to let childen eat until they are full, because "dietary restraint", that is parents telling kids they cannot have any more to eat, leads children to overeat when parents are no longer supervising.]

[NEW PARENT'S: 1)calculate your baby's ponderal index. 2)read why it is important] Associations of size at birth and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of lean and fat mass at 9 to 10 y of age Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 739-747 "Conclusions: Higher PI at birth is associated with both higher fat and lean mass in childhood but also with an increase in the fat-to-lean mass ratio [an increase in how fat the child becomes]. PI at birth is a better predictor of subsequent adiposity than is birth weight. "

[PREGNANCY-AVOID SWEETS IF YOU CAN] Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 807-812 "Conclusion: Because birth weight and ponderal index may predict chronic disease in later life, a low-GI diet may favorably influence long-term outcomes."

[Glycemic Index appears more significant than Glycemic Load] Weighing in on glycemic index and body weight
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 677-679 "The GI is defined as the area under the 2-h postprandial blood glucose concentration curve per 50 g available carbohydrate consumed from a test food, relative to a reference food (either white bread or pure glucose) (11, 12). A related concept included in the study by Hare-Bruun et al (1) is the glycemic load (GL), or the product of the food GI and the amount of available carbohydrate (ie, that without fiber) in that food (or beverage) portion, which purportedly is a better indicator of the glycemic response to habitual mixed meals than is either the GI or the carbohydrate amount alone...experimental and observational studies in animals and humans have provided good evidence to support the direct effect or association of low-GI or -GL diets in both the management of diabetes and the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease...The dietary GL was not associated with changes in body weight or body fat in men or women, whereas the dietary GI was directly associated with changes in weight, waist circumference, and body fat in women but not in men... soluble fiber is known to delay gastric emptying and glucose absorption—ie, to reduce the GI..."

[A skeptic of supplement use] The dubious use of vitamin-mineral supplements in relation to cardiovascular disease Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 680-681 " Our knowledge of the essentiality of the micronutrients is derived largely from the isolation and identification of those dietary ingredients that prevent specific deficiency diseases... there are some who believe that even healthy people should try to achieve a state of "optimal nutrition" by taking a vitamin-mineral supplements that supplies 100% of the RDAs in addition to the foods eaten each day. Such is the recommendation from the Linus Pauling Institute, which at least recognizes that "the intake levels most likely to promote optimum health remain to be determined" seems that nearly 50% of our population may be spending 1.5 billion dollars each year in this practice of "securing" their health...Much of the thrust in such use has been based on the presumption of a special benefit from antioxidant nutrients (mainly vitamins C and E, ß-carotene, and selenium) and those B vitamins (mainly folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12) ...Neither ß-carotene nor vitamin E proved effective in large-scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (6); in fact, high doses of vitamin E may increase all-cause mortality...there is no evidence of a protective effect of antioxidant or B vitamin supplements on the progression of atherosclerosis and that these supplements had no effect on clinical cardiovascular disease...Of 2311 trials identified, only 16 met the inclusion criteria..." [Please see main story on supplement use also] [ed. note - please see rebuttal by site editor]

[Antioxidant supplements appear to prevent disease in offspring] Maternal antioxidant intake in pregnancy and wheezing illnesses in children at 2 y of age Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 903-911"Background: Low intakes of dietary antioxidants may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy...Conclusion: Our results suggest that higher maternal total intakes of antioxidants during pregnancy may decrease the risks for wheezing illnesses in early childhood."

[If you control your blood pressure, then coffee is good for you] Coffee, diabetes, and weight control Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 682-693. "Several prospective epidemiologic studies over the past 4 y concluded that ingestion of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee can reduce the risk of diabetes. ..Weight loss may be an explanatory factor, because one prospective epidemiologic study found that consumption of coffee was followed by lower diabetes risk but only in participants who had lost weight. A second such study found that both caffeine and coffee intakes were modestly and inversely associated with weight gain...Caffeine and caffeinated coffee have been shown to acutely increase blood pressure and thereby to pose a health threat to persons with cardiovascular disease risk..."[Please see main story on coffee also] [Please review a poster on coffee research ]

[Soft drinks, specifically colas, linked to osteoporosis] Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 936-942 "Background: Soft drink consumption may have adverse effects on bone mineral density (BMD), but studies have shown mixed results. In addition to displacing healthier beverages, colas contain caffeine and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), which may adversely affect bone...Results: Cola intake was associated with significantly lower ...BMD at each hip site ...Conclusions: Intake of cola, but not of other carbonated soft drinks, is associated with low BMD in women. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings."

[Make sure your vitamin D supplement is type D3 cholecalciferol] The case against ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) as a vitamin supplement Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 694-697 " Supplemental vitamin D is available in 2 distinct forms: ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3)...vitamin D3 has proven to be the more potent form of vitamin D in all primate species, including humans...Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol, should not be regarded as a nutrient suitable for supplementation or fortification."

[Fat and vitamin intake correlates with inflammation] Dietary intakes of fat and antioxidant vitamins are predictors of subclinical inflammation in overweight Swiss children Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 748-755 "Results: CRP, IL-6, and leptin increased significantly ...with increasing adiposity, independent of age; ... Total dietary fat and the percentage of energy from fat were significant predictors of CRP concentration,.... Meat intake was a significant predictor of IL-6 and leptin,... Intakes of antioxidant vitamins (vitamins E and C and ß-carotene) were significant predictors of leptin ...but not of CRP, IL-6, or TNF-. Conclusions: Overweight Swiss children as young as 6 y have elevated concentrations of inflammatory markers. Intakes of total fat and antioxidant vitamins are determinants of subclinical inflammation in this age group. [ed note-study may be interpreted that kids who are overfed and do not get exercise are also given vitamins by their parents.]

[plant sterol supplementation improves health markers ] Reduced-calorie orange juice beverage with plant sterols lowers C-reactive protein concentrations and improves the lipid profile in human volunteers Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 756-761"Conclusion: Supplementation with a reduced-calorie orange juice beverage containing plant sterols is effective in reducing CRP and LDL cholesterol and could be incorporated into the dietary portion of therapeutic lifestyle changes."[superior beverage had 1g of sterol added]

[soy isoflavones reduces heart disease risk] Effects of soy isoflavones and phytate on homocysteine, C-reactive protein, and iron status in postmenopausal women Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 774-780 "Background:Soy protein or its components may protect against the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors total homocysteine (tHcy), C-reactive protein (CRP), and excess body iron, which generally increase with menopause...Conclusion:Consuming phytate-rich foods and maintaining a healthy weight may reduce atherosclerotic CVD risk factors in postmenopausal women."

[high protein diet for 5 years reduces waistline-lots of specific guidelines in results] Intake of macronutrients as predictors of 5-y changes in waist circumference Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 789-797 "Results:Neither total energy intake nor energy intake from each of the macronutrients was associated with difference in waist circumference after 5 years(DWC), except for an inverse association with protein, especially animal protein. In women, positive associations with DWC were seen for carbohydrate from refined grains and potatoes and from foods with simple sugars, whereas carbohydrate from fruit and vegetables was inversely associated and significantly different from any other carbohydrate subgroup. The results for men resembled those for women, although none were significant. Vegetable fat was positively associated with DWC for both men and women in a combined analysis. A U-shaped association between alcohol from wine and DWC was present for both sexes, and alcohol from spirits was positively associated with DWC in women. Conclusions:Although no significant associations with total energy or energy from fat, carbohydrate, or alcohol were observed, protein intake was inversely related to difference in waist circumference after 5 years(DWC), and some macronutrient subgroups were significantly associated with DWC."

[Advice for obese, diabetic adults] Effects of moderate variations in macronutrient composition on weight loss and reduction in cardiovascular disease risk in obese, insulin-resistant adults Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 813-821"Conclusions: In obese, insulin-resistant persons, a calorie-restricted diet, moderately lower in carbohydrate and higher in unsaturated fat, is as efficacious as the traditional low-fat diet in producing weight loss and may be more beneficial in reducing markers for cardiovascular disease risk. "

[Your body wants tocotrienols] Postprandial metabolic fate of tocotrienol-rich vitamin E differs significantly from that of alpha-tocopherol Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 835-842 "Conclusions: Tocotrienols are detected in postprandial plasma, albeit in significantly lower concentrations than is -tocopherol. This finding confirms previous observations that, in the fasted state, tocotrienols are not detected in plasma. Tocotrienol transport in lipoproteins appears to follow complex biochemically mediated pathways within the lipoprotein cascade."

[Magnesium requirement lower than Daily Value] Magnesium requirements: new estimations for men and women by cross-sectional statistical analyses of metabolic magnesium balance data Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 843-852 "Conclusion: The findings suggest a lower magnesium requirement for healthy men and women than estimated previously."

[Fat intake causes heart disease, Native American study]Dietary fat intake and risk of coronary heart disease: the Strong Heart Study Am J Clin Nutr 2006 84: 894-902 "Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary fat intake and CHD incidence in American Indians in the Strong Heart Study...Conclusions: Total fat, saturated fatty acid, and monounsaturated fatty acid intake were strong predictors of CHD mortality in American Indians aged 47–59 y, independent of other established CHD risk factors. It may be prudent for American Indians to reduce their fat intake early in life to reduce the risk of dying from CHD."







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