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J Nutrition Oct, 2005

[eat a rainbow of colors to protect your heart] Cardioprotective Effects of Dietary Polyphenols, J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2291-2294. Dietary polyphenols have been shown to possess cardioprotective effects. For example, the most noted role of grape polyphenols is in the French Paradox, in which a diet high in saturated fat accompanied by regular consumption of red wine is associated with a low risk of coronary heart disease (CHD)...Although there are contrasting viewpoints on the effects of polyphenols on LDL oxidation variables, there is increasing evidence that these compounds possess additional cardioprotective functions including altering hepatic cholesterol absorption, triglyceride assembly and secretion, the processing of lipoproteins in plasma, and inflammation....

[vitamin D decreases risk of colon cancer] Vitamin D Deficiency Enhances the Growth of MC-26 Colon Cancer Xenografts in Balb/c Mice - J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2350-2354. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of colon cancer in epidemiologic and prospective clinical studies. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3] and its analogs inhibit colon cancer cell proliferation...

[800 mg calcium is enough, not 2,000mg] Calcium Supplementation Does Not Augment Bone Gain in Young Women Consuming Diets Moderately Low in Calcium
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2362-2366 In earlier observational work, the dietary calcium:protein ratio was directly related to bone accrual in healthy postadolescent women. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that augmented calcium intake would increase postadolescent skeletal consolidation, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled design...None of these rates of change differed by group, i.e., calcium supplementation did not have any measurable effect on bone mass accrual. By midstudy, the calcium content of the subjects’ usual diets for both groups had risen by 15%. The combined effect of improved intakes of dietary calcium and the small amount of calcium added by the multivitamin tablets resulted in a mean calcium intake for the control group > 800 mg (20 mmol)/d, possibly at or near the threshold beyond which additional calcium has no further effect on bone accrual.

[multivitamin hazard in copper ] Supplementing Copper at the Upper Level of the Adult Dietary Recommended Intake Induces Detectable but Transient Changes in Healthy Adults J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2367-2371 The health consequences of mild copper excess in humans are unknown...Individuals received a single daily dose of 10 mg Cu for 60 d...After 2 mo, liver enzyme activities remained below the clinical cutoff value used to diagnose liver dysfunction, but had increased significantly in both groups and genders...

[soymilk must be fortified with calcium carbonate, NOT calcium phosphate, to provide calcium like cow's milk] Calcium Bioavailability of Calcium Carbonate Fortified Soymilk Is Equivalent to Cow’s Milk in Young Women
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2379-2382 - Fractional Ca absorption in CCSM (0.211 ± 0.057) did not differ from that of cow’s milk (0.217 ± 0.040), but both were higher (P < 0.05) than that of TCPSM (0.181 ± 0.039). Our result suggests that calcium absorption is equivalent for CCSM and cow’s milk at similar calcium loads.

Reduced Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load Diets Do Not Increase the Effects of Energy Restriction on Weight Loss and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Men and Women - J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2387-2391- In summary, lowering the glycemic load and glycemic index of weight reduction diets does not provide any added benefit to energy restriction in promoting weight loss in obese subjects.

A Pilot School-Based Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Intervention Improves Diet, Food Knowledge, and Self-Efficacy for Native Canadian Children - J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2392-2398 - ...students in the 3rd, 4th, and 5th grades...This program was associated with improved knowledge and the psychosocial factors related to healthy eating and dietary fiber intake of students in a remote First Nations community.

[ adverse effect of ß-carotene in smokers] Tobacco Use and Associations of ß-Carotene and Vitamin Intakes with Colorectal Adenoma Risk - J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2468-2472 - Our findings support a protective effect of folate and vitamins C and B-6 irrespective of smoking habits, and a protective effect of ß-carotene in nonsmokers only. They suggest an adverse effect of ß-carotene in smokers, who should be cautious about taking high doses of this micronutrient.

[vitamin D supplements needed!!!] Vitamin D Intakes by Children and Adults in the United States Differ among Ethnic Groups
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2478-2485 - Concerns about vitamin D status in the United States have resurfaced due to increasing reports of insufficiency and deficiency. Few foods contain vitamin D naturally, and currently few foods are fortified in the United States... Among adults 51 y old, only 4% met or exceeded the AI from food alone. Few women 19–50 y old or men and women 51 y old were estimated to consume recommended vitamin D levels from food...The large discrepancy between vitamin D intake by older individuals from food plus supplements and recommended levels, especially for NH black and Mexican American adults, warrants intervention.




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