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OCTOBER. 2004

BENEFIT OF WHOLE GRAINS/VEGETABLES FOR POST-MENOPAUSE: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/10/2691

The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers...In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

THE FUTURE: METABOLOMICS AND INDIVIDUALIZED HEALTH: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/10/2729

Metabolomics in the Opening Decade of the 21st Century: Building the Roads to Individualized Health

SEPTEMBER, 2004

CLAs: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/9/2263

In conclusion, adult male rats do not appear to be responsive to the fat-to-lean partitioning effect of CLA described in growing rats. This was not affected by exercise or initial body fat level. [see ACJN article showing useful effect in one isomer.]

OLIVE OIL: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/9/2314

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether olive oils high in phenolic compounds influence the oxidative/antioxidative status in humans. Healthy men (n = 12) participated in a double-blind, randomized, crossover study in which 3 olive oils with low (LPC), moderate (MPC), and high (HPC) phenolic content were given as raw doses (25 mL/d) for 4 consecutive days preceded by 10-d washout periods. Volunteers followed a strict very low-antioxidant diet the 3 d before and during the intervention periods. Short-term consumption of olive oils decreased plasma oxidized LDL (oxLDL), 8-oxo-dG in mitochondrial DNA and urine, malondialdehyde in urine (P < 0.05 for linear trend), and increased HDL cholesterol and glutathione peroxidase activity (P < 0.05 for linear trend), in a dose-dependent manner with the phenolic content of the olive oil administered. At d 4, oxLDL after MPC and HPC, and 8-oxo-dG after HPC administration (25 mL, respectively), were reduced when the men were in the postprandial state (P < 0.05). Phenolic compounds in plasma increased dose dependently during this stage with the phenolic content of the olive oils at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively (P < 0.01). Their concentrations increased in plasma and urine samples in a dose-dependent manner after short-term consumption of the olive oils (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the olive oil phenolic content modulated the oxidative/antioxidative status of healthy men who consumed a very low-antioxidant diet.

 

GENE REGULATION: http://www.nutrition.org/content/vol134/issue9/#SUPPLEMENT__NUTRITION_AND_GENE_REGULATION

Nutritional genomics is the study of nutrient-gene interctions…the last decade has provided evidence that major…nutrients…regulate gene expression in a hormone-independent manner.

ATKINS: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/9/2437S

G6PD activity is enhanced by the consumption of diets high in carbohydrate and is inhibited by the consumption of polyunsaturated fat.

LOW CARBOHYDRATE DIET http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/3/537

Diabetes and dietary macronutrients: is carbohydrate all that bad?1,2,3

Robert H Eckel

Even if very-low-carbohydrate diets produce more weight loss in patients with diabetes than do low-fat diets, as suggested by a recent study in which the low-carbohydrate diet was high in saturated fat as well as in total fat (8), the weight-loss benefit fails to last >6 mo. Until the long-term efficacy and safety of low-carbohydrate diets can be documented, the recommendations of the National Cholesterol Education Program (13), the American Heart Association (14), and other professional organizations (15) should remain the standard of care.

BETAINE: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/539

Betaine is distributed widely in animals, plants, and microorganisms, and rich dietary sources include seafood, especially marine invertebrates (1%); wheat germ or bran (1%); and spinach (0.7%). The principal physiologic role of betaine is as an osmolyte and methyl donor (transmethylation). The growing body of evidence shows that betaine is an important nutrient for the prevention of chronic disease.

OBESITY: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/569

data collected from US adolescents enrolled in wave II (1996; ages 13-20 y) and wave III (2001; 19-26 y) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 9795). The prevalence of obesity increased from 10.9% in wave II to 22.1% in wave III, and extreme obesity was 4.3% at wave III on the basis of a BMI 40.

EXERCISE: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/591

Conclusion: In this sample and setting, physical activity level was not influenced by engagement in moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity but was influenced by time spent sedentary and in light-intensity activities. This study suggests that in young children, moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity could make only a minor contribution to free-living total energy expenditure and physical activity level.

TRANSLATION: Exercise class is not as important as having a generally active lifestyle.

WINE: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/621

Even for the highest quartile of blood pressure, moderate wine drinkers were protected from all-cause mortality. No significant reduction in all-cause mortality in relation to systolic blood pressure was observed in other drinkers (those who consumed 60 g alcohol/d or who consumed beer and wine).

Conclusion: A moderate intake of wine is associated with a lower risk of mortality from all causes in persons with hypertension.

FISHOIL: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/626

Conclusions: Consumption of fish is associated with a significantly reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in women with coronary artery disease.

VITAMIN E AND COENZYME Q: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/649

Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with vitamin E alone reduces the baseline inflammatory status that is indicated by the CRP concentration in healthy adult baboons. Cosupplementation with CoQ10, however, significantly enhances this antiinflammatory effect of vitamin E.

ZINC: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/715

Conclusion: Dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc each have a positive association with bone mineral density in men.

Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is a component of >200 enzymes and is known to be necessary for normal collagen synthesis and mineralization of bone.

YOGURT: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/737

Supplementing with Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt (AB-yogurt) was shown to improve the rates of eradication of H. pylori in humans. Conclusion: Regular intake of yogurt containing Bb12 and La5 effectively suppressed H. pylori infection in humans

VITAMIN D: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/3/752

Conclusion: In both active and inactive ambulatory persons aged 60 y, 25(OH)D concentrations between 40 and 94 nmol/L are associated with better musculoskeletal function in the lower extremities than are concentrations < 40 nmol/L.

Musculoskeletal function improved by 4-11% in the vitamin D plus calcium group. In addition, the rate of falling was 49% lower than in the calcium only group.

VITAMIN E:

Vitamin E from supplements has good bioavailability

Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80: 784-785.

Vitamin E supplements are not effectively absorbed if they are taken on an empty stomach with a glass of non-fat milk…vitamin E supplements should not be taken alone, but…with food…containing higher amounts of fat in an effort to improve absorption.

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