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AJCN Sep, 2008 - The September American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is nearly 450 pages.  Below are the headlines.  The numbers show where the extracts are at my web site.  Each extract is linked to the actual online article that has all of the details.

SUMMARY - Here's my summary, with more at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln08sepajcn.htm and links to the published articles:
1. FISH OIL IS NECESSARY FOR EVERYONE - Taking fish oil all of your life is essential - Studies this issue show how people with deficiency die more, have cognitive decline,  get dementia. and develop depression. Also, maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding improved scores of infant health by nearly 30%. However, flax seed oil does not appear sufficient as a substitute for fish oil
LOTS MORE IMPORTANT INFORMATION - 2. Childen drinking milk instead of sugar-sweetened beverages were an inch taller in 16 weeks! 3. Using olive oil rather than saturated fat improves insulin and immune system function. 4. Eating pistachio nuts reduces your risk of heart disease. [49 nuts is a serving] 5. Two days of fasting had no effect on healthy people 6. Women eating fatty snacks gain weight, especially over the years.  Most pregnant women gain more weight than the ranges recommended, and fatty snacks are a key cause. 7. Inadequate choline can harm the liver. 8. Fruits and veggies protect the colon. 9. People have a safe intake of copper.  

DETAILS -
1. Taking fish oil all of your life is essential - DaVinci admonishes the young to feed on the wisdom of the old. In this issue of the Journal, 3 studies regarding the role of n–3 fatty acids (FAs)—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—in geriatric populations are published. They nourish us well...the endpoints in these studies ran the gamut from all-cause mortality and cognitive decline in the former 2 studies to mood and mental health in the latter study...these findings suggest that dietary habits that include higher versus lower intakes of long-chain n–3 FAs may bring certain health benefits that short-term supplementation cannot provide....n–3 FA supplementation improved mood indicators in 33 subjects in their mid-30s in only 35 d. Eating meat in contrast to fish increased the risk of dementia.
Maternal fish intake during pregnancy and the duration of breastfeeding are independently associated with better early child development. Infants improved scores nearly 30% with sufficient fish oil intake.
Flax seed oil does not appear sufficient as a substitute for fish oil because the omega-3 fatty acids in it are not long enough.

2. Drinking milk instead of sugar-sweetened beverages improves muscle and growth in children 8 to 10. Kids drinking milk in place of pop were an inch taller in 16 weeks!

3. Using olive oil rather than saturated fat improves insulin and immune system function.

4. Eating pistachio nuts reduce risk of heart disease. [49 nuts is a serving]

5. Two days of fasting had no effect on healthy people - Cognitive performance, activity, sleep, and mood are not adversely affected in healthy humans by 2 d of calorie-deprivation when the subjects and investigators are unaware of the calorie content of the treatments.

6. Women eating fatty snacks gain weight - Background: Dietary energy density (ED) is positively associated with energy intake, but little is known about long-term effects on weight change. Objective: We assessed whether dietary ED predicts weight change over 6 y among a sample of non-Hispanic, white women.Conclusions: Findings indicate that consumption of a lower-ED diet moderates weight gain, which may promote weight maintenance. Consuming lower ED diets can be achieved by consuming more servings of fruit and vegetables and limiting intake of high-fat foods. A second study found the same thing. A high dietary ED reflects a dietary pattern higher in saturated and trans fats and refined carbohydrates. Increases in dietary ED were associated with greater weight gain among middle-aged women during 8 y of follow-up. This is also true when pregnant - Background: Most pregnant women gain more weight than the ranges recommended. Excessive weight gain is linked to pregnancy complications and to long-term maternal and child health outcomes...Conclusion: Dietary energy density is a modifiable factor that may assist pregnant women in managing gestational weight gains.

7. Inadequate choline can harm the liver - An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men...

8. Fruits and veggies protect the colon- The intake of vegetables and fruit was inversely related to colorectal cancer risk among men but not among women. The association appears stronger for colon than for rectal cancer.

9. People have a safe intake of copper. Under real-world conditions, the magnitude of copper exposure is clearly insufficient to induce detectable effects; thus, biomarkers for copper excess remain elusive.

 

 

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