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AJCN Sep, 2007

[Get some calcium AND EXERCISE to prevent osteoporosis] Calcium intake, body fat, and bones—a complex relation "Two commonly cited risk factors for osteoporosis are dietary calcium intake and body weight (1)...a low dietary calcium intake may increase the risk of osteoporosis in early postmenopausal women, but this negative effect can be offset by a high body mass index (BMI)." [Holistic approach to osteoporosis is best] Changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone mineral density after a 12-mo dietary intervention program: the Postmenopausal Health Study "Conclusion: The application of a holistic intervention approach combining nutrition education and consumption of fortified dairy products for 12 mo can induce more favorable changes in biochemical indexes of bone metabolism and bone mineral density than can calcium supplementation alone."

[Why eating unlimited fat leads to obesity-Atkin's diet flaw] Modulation by high-fat diets of gastrointestinal function and hormones associated with the regulation of energy intake: implications for the pathophysiology of obesity "The presence of fat in the small intestine slows gastric emptying, stimulates the release of many gastrointestinal hormones, and suppresses appetite and energy intake as a result of the digestion of fats into free fatty acids; ...However, increasing evidence indicates that a chronic increase in dietary fat is associated with an attenuation of the feedback signals arising from the small intestine induced by fat, with a consequent relative acceleration of gastric emptying, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone secretion, and attenuation of the suppression of energy intake..."

[A view to the future of personalized nutrition]Nutrigenomics and metabolomics will change clinical nutrition and public health practice: insights from studies on dietary requirements for choline " Science is beginning to understand how genetic variation and epigenetic events alter requirements for, and responses to, nutrients (nutrigenomics). At the same time, methods for profiling almost all of the products of metabolism in a single sample of blood or urine are being developed (metabolomics). Relations between diet and nutrigenomic and metabolomic profiles and between those profiles and health have become important components of research that could change clinical practice in nutrition. Most nutrition studies assume that all persons have average dietary requirements, and the studies often do not plan for a large subset of subjects who differ in requirements for a nutrient. "

[Low carb high fat diet may slow speed of thinking] Low- and high-carbohydrate weight-loss diets have similar effects on mood but not cognitive performance "Background: Low-carbohydrate diets are often used to promote weight loss, but their effects on psychological function are largely unknown. Objective: We compared the effects of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LCHF) diet with a conventional high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HCLF) diet on mood and cognitive function...Conclusions: Both dietary patterns significantly reduced body weight and were associated with improvements in mood. There was some evidence for a smaller improvement in cognitive functioning with the LCHF diet with respect to speed of processing..."

[A cup of coffee daily may reduce plaque in arteries] Coffee drinking induces incorporation of phenolic acids into LDL and increases the resistance of LDL to ex vivo oxidation in humans " Conclusion: Drinking 200 mL (1 cup) coffee induces an increase in the resistance of LDL to oxidative modification, probably as a result of the incorporation of coffee's phenolic acids into LDL."

[Folate prevents heart disease] Folic acid improves vascular reactivity in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials "Conclusion:This study indicates that high doses of folic acid improve endothelial function, which could potentially reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease." [Folate improves thinking and reflex speed] Plasma folate concentration and cognitive performance: Rotterdam Scan Study " Conclusions:Higher plasma folate concentrations are associated with better global cognitive function and better performance on tests of psychomotor speed, regardless of homocysteine concentration."

[1,000 to 2,000 IU vitamin D3 daily- SAFE AND PROVEN] Safety of vitamin D3 in adults with multiple sclerosis " The data support the feasibility of pharmacologic doses of vitamin D3 for clinical research, and they provide objective evidence that vitamin D intake beyond the current upper limit is safe by a large margin."[Vitamin D reduces respiratory infections] An association of serum vitamin D concentrations < 40 nmol/L with acute respiratory tract infection in young Finnish men "Subjects with serum 25(OH)D concentrations < 40 nmol/L (n = 24) had significantly (P = 0.004) more days of absence from duty due to respiratory infection ...than did control subjects "

[French diet healthy but costly]Low energy density and high nutritional quality are each associated with higher diet costs in French adults "Conclusions: In this study of self-selected diets of French adults, lower energy density and higher nutritional quality were associated with higher energy-adjusted diet costs. Higher-quality diets cost more not only because they have a low energy density but also because they are nutrient rich."

[Low glycemic index diet may not help] An 18-mo randomized trial of a low-glycemic-index diet and weight change in Brazilian women "Objective: The objective was to investigate the long-term effect of a low-glycemic-index (LGI) diet compared with that of a high-glycemic-index (HGI) diet; all other dietary components were equal...Conclusions: Long-term weight changes were not significantly different between the HGI and LGI diet groups; therefore, this study does not support a benefit of an LGI diet for weight control."

[Teaching kids nutrition reduces obesity] APPLE Project: 2-y findings of a community-based obesity prevention program in primary school–age children " Intervention components included nutrition education that targeted reductions in sweetened drinks and increased fruit and vegetable intake and activity coordinators who managed an activity program that focused on noncurricular lifestyle-based activities (eg, community walks)...Conclusion: A relatively simple approach, providing activity coordinators and basic nutrition education in schools, significantly reduces the rate of excessive weight gain in children, although this may be limited to those not initially overweight. "

[Too much calcium/too little magnesium increases colorectal cancer] The relation of magnesium and calcium intakes and a genetic polymorphism in the magnesium transporter to colorectal neoplasia risk "Background: Mean magnesium intake in the US population does not differ from that in East Asian populations with traditionally low risks of colorectal cancer and other chronic diseases, but the ratio of calcium to magnesium (Ca:Mg) intake is much higher in the US population... Conclusion: These findings, if confirmed, may provide a new avenue for the personalized prevention of magnesium deficiency and, thus, colorectal cancer."

[Dietary fiber very useful] Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women "Background: Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation...Conclusions: Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin."

[Plant sterols lower bad cholesterol] Effect of low-fat, fermented milk enriched with plant sterols on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress in moderate hypercholesterolemia "Background: Plant sterol (PS)-enriched foods have been shown to reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. ..Conclusion: Daily consumption of 1.6 g PS in low-fat fermented milk efficiently lowers LDL cholesterol in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia without deleterious effects on biomarkers of oxidative stress.

[CLAs increase burning fat while sleeping] Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation alters the 6-mo change in fat oxidation during sleep "Background: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a family of positional and geometric isomers with 2 conjugated double bonds formed from linoleic acid and linolenic acid. CLA has a wide range of biological effects, including body fat reduction...Design: We recruited 23 subjects...3.2 g/d,... before and after 6 mo of CLA supplementation ...Conclusion: Mixed isomer CLA supplementation, but not placebo, positively altered fat oxidation and energy expenditure during sleep"

[Metabolic Syndrome increases cancer risk severely] Supplement: Metabolic Syndrome and the Onset of Cancer




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