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J Nutrition Sept 2005

Maria Luz Fernandez and Kristy L. West
Mechanisms by which Dietary Fatty Acids Modulate Plasma Lipids
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2075-2078.

[saturated and trans-fats hazardous] Dietary fatty acids have a considerable effect on plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations and therefore on the risk for coronary heart disease...Saturated Fatty Acids and trans fatty acids have a detrimental effect on plasma lipids, whereas PUFAs of the (n-6) family and monounsaturated fatty acids decrease plasma LDL-C concentrations. Among the SFAs, stearic acid (18:0) appears to have a neutral effect on LDL-C, while lauric (12:0), myristic (14:0), and palmitic (16:0) acids are considered to be hypercholesterolemic.

Janine Mukuddem-Petersen, Welma Oosthuizen, and Johann C. Jerling
A Systematic Review of the Effects of Nuts on Blood Lipid Profiles in Humans
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2082-2089

[nuts 5 times a week wonderful-Walnuts best, coconuts not really nuts, peanuts are fine] The inverse association of nut consumption and risk markers of coronary heart disease (lipids) has sparked the interest of the scientific and lay community... 415 publications were screened and 23 studies were included...studies showed decreases in total cholesterol between 2 and 16% and LDL cholesterol between 2 and 19% compared with subjects consuming control diets. Consumption of macadamia nuts (50–100 g/d) produced less convincing results. In conclusion, consumption of 50–100 g (1.5–3.5 servings) of nuts 5 times/wk as part of a heart-healthy diet with total fat content (high in mono- and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids) of 35% of energy may significantly decrease total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in normo- and hyperlipidemic individuals.

MaryFran Sowers, Gary M. Whitford, M. Kathleen Clark, and Mary L. Jannausch
Elevated serum fluoride Concentrations in Women Are Not Related to Fractures and Bone Mineral Density
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 2247-2252.

[fluoride not critical to bone density and fractures] Serum fluoride was not significantly related to BMD after adjusting for covariates including age and body size. The mean distal radius BMD, however, was significantly higher in the high-fluoride community. Serum fluoride concentrations were not related to incident osteoporotic fractures with 4 y of observation.

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