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AJCN Sept, 2005
Teodoro Bottiglieri and Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Over the past 2 decades, numerous epidemiologic studies have confirmed that elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with an increased risk of vascular diseases, including cardiovascular, peripheral vascular, and cerebral vascular disease (1, 2). Because elevated plasma tHcy is effectively treated with B vitamin supplements (folic acid, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6), therapy that is inexpensive and well tolerated, an explosion of clinical and basic research on the vascular effects of hyperhomocysteinemia has occurred over the past decade. Vascular disease has deleterious effects on various organs of the body, and the brain is particularly susceptible... elevated tHcy is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and with cognitive problems in the elderly that fall short of dementia...hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with a 2-fold increase in the relative risk of developing AD...Recent data from studies in Parkinson disease (PD) argue for a more direct neurotoxic role for Hcy in central nervous system function.
Victoria J Vieira, Anne M Ronan, Mark R Windt, and Anthony R Tagliaferro
[this study showed overweight women are more likely to have allergies and asthma].The frequency of specific IgE in the obese group was almost 3 times that in the nonobese group. Conclusion: The findings confirm a direct relation between obesity and a T helper 2 cell immune response in women.
W Garry John, Kate Noonan, Nasima Mannan, and Barbara J Boucher
[low vitamin D levels increase heart disease and diabetes] Subjects with hypovitaminosis D are likely to have an increased risk of ischemic heart disease independent of their increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Nadine R Sahyoun et al, Dietary glycemic index and load, measures of glucose metabolism, and body fat distribution in older adults
Conclusion: The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate an association between dietary glycemic index and selected predictors of type 2 diabetes in older adults, particularly in men
Petra Verhoef, Trinette van Vliet, Margreet R Olthof, and Martijn B Katan
[unclear whether high protein diet might be harmful] Conclusions: A high-protein diet increases tHcy concentrations throughout the day but does not increase fasting tHcy concentrations. As previously shown, the extent of the tHcy increase is modified by the amino acid composition of the protein diet. The clinical relevance of this finding depends on whether high concentrations of tHcy—particularly postprandially—cause cardiovascular disease.
Randi L Wolf et al, Lack of a relation between vitamin and mineral antioxidants and bone mineral density: results from the Women's Health Initiative
The findings were such that beneficial effects of current hormone therapy use on the various bone mineral density [BMD] sites appeared to be greater among women with higher total intake of vitamin C...Other mechanisms through which vitamin C may contribute to BMD remain unclear, but they are speculated to be related to the role of vitamin C in collagen formation.
Charlotte A Hobbs et al, Congenital heart defects and maternal biomarkers of oxidative stress
Conclusions: Biomarkers of oxidative stress involved in the transsulfuration pathway were significantly higher in women with pregnancies affected by congenital heart defects than in women without such a history. Further analysis of relevant biomarkers of oxidative stress and genetic and environmental factors is required to define the basis for the observed alterations.
Zhao Chen et al, Postmenopausal hormone therapy and body composition—a substudy of the estrogen plus progestin trial of the Women's Health Initiative
[estrogen therapy does not help weight]Conclusions: A 3-y E+P intervention significantly reduced both the loss of lean soft tissue mass and the ratio of trunk to leg fat mass in postmenopausal women. However, the effect sizes were small, and whether these changes in body composition lead to significant health benefits remains to be confirmed.
Anwar T Merchant, Gary C Curhan, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, and Wafaie W Fawzi
Pneumonia and influenza are the fifth leading causes of death in the US in men over 65...Plyunsaturated fatty acids have been hypothesized to module inflammation and immunity. [this study shows they do.] Conclusion: Higher intakes of alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids and possibly of fish may reduce the risk of pneumonia. ..
Matthias B Schulze et al, Dietary pattern, inflammation, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women
we identified a dietary pattern that was strongly related to inflammatory markers in the nested case-control study. This pattern, which was high in sugar-sweetened soft drinks, refined grains, diet soft drinks, and processed meat but low in wine, coffee, cruciferous vegetables, and yellow vegetables, was associated with an increased risk of diabetes...Conclusion: The dietary pattern identified may increase chronic inflammation and raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Terry Coyne et al, Diabetes mellitus and serum carotenoids: findings of a population-based study in Queensland, Australia
Carotenoids are a wide range of compounds derived solely from plants; the major ones found in serum are alpha-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene. Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that serum carotenoids are potent antioxidants and may play a protective role in the development of chronic diseases including cancers, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory diseases. The role of these antioxidants in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus remains unclear...Results: Mean 2-h postload plasma glucose and fasting insulin concentrations decreased significantly with increasing quintiles of the 5 serum carotenoids—alpha-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, and lycopene.