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AJCN August, 2009 - SUMMARY
A deep breath is good nutrition, and helps you be conscious. Please see SYNOPSES and links after summary located below. And if you have questions, please ask Roc at ordman@beloit.edu. To be removed from or add someone to get this nutrition summary, click here.

SUMMARY
A deep breath is good nutrition, and helps you be conscious. Please see SYNOPSES and links after summary located at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/aln/0809ajcn.htm And if you have questions, please ask Roc at ordman@beloit.edu. To be removed from or add someone to get this nutrition summary, click here.

Hazards of 4 legged meat -
1. Four legged meat consumption increases risk of dementia
2. Protein intake decreases blood pressure

To reduce your blood pressure and bad cholesterol level -
3. Mediterranean diet lowers high blood pressure
See 2. above
4. Flaxseed lowers LDL

Obesity news -
5. Increasing water intake decreases snacking - Instead of inhibiting the intake of food in the test situation as was observed in the control subjects, the obese subjects actually ate more when they were given the same snack. But drinking water decreased snacking.
6. Smaller bites and longer chewing speed satiation
7. Exercise and weight loss reduce diabetes risk
8. Behaviour may outweigh genetics to prevent obesity
9. Exercise overcomes DNA to prevent obesity
10. Obese friends increase your obesity
11. Environment after birth causes obesity more than maternal obesity during pregnancy

To preserve your DNA -
12. Zinc necessary for healthy DNA

Still more discoveries -
13. Fish oil reduces inflammation
14. Vitamin C lowers heart disease risk
15. Important information for women with HIV having babies

DETAILS -

1. Four legged meat consumption increases risk of dementia - Conclusions: Our results extend findings on the associations of fish and meat consumption with dementia risk to populations in low- and middle-income countries and are consistent with mechanistic data on the neuroprotective actions of omega-3 (n–3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish. The inverse association between fish and prevalent dementia is unlikely to result from poorer dietary habits among demented individuals (reverse causality) because meat consumption was higher in those with a diagnosis of dementia.

2. Protein intake decreases blood pressure - Conclusion: Total and animal protein intakes were inversely associated with blood pressure in Japanese adults.

3. Mediterranean diet lowers high blood pressure - Background: Abdominal obesity (AO) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, whereas the Mediterranean diet exerts a cardioprotective effect...Conclusion: Close adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet achieved by close dietetic supervision improves endothelial function [blood pressure] in subjects with AO.

4. Flaxseed lowers LDL - Conclusions: Flaxseed significantly reduced circulating total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations...

5. Increasing water intake decreases snacking - Many studies show that we can produce significant initial weight losses by using diet and behavioral programs (2–4), but many participants in these programs suffer from weight regain...Evidence from several sources suggests that the quantity of food eaten, and thus the energy content of our diets, has increased over the past 50 y, and that this may be the major factor in the development of obesity (5). The report by Hill et al (6) estimated that the energy needed for the current increase in weight was {approx}100 kcal/d...Instead of inhibiting the intake of food in the test situation as was observed in the control subjects, the obese subjects actually ate more when they were given the same snack over the test period of 14 d...The risk of overweight was reduced 31% in the schools with the enhanced water intake.

6. Smaller bites and longer chewing speed satiation - Conclusion: This study shows that greater oral sensory exposure to a product, by eating with small bite sizes rather than with large bite sizes and increasing oral processing time [chewing], significantly decreases food intake.

7. Exercise and weight loss reduce diabetes risk - It is projected that, by 2025, >300 million people worldwide will have diabetes. In the United States, in the period between the 2 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted in 1976 and 1994, the number of people with diabetes almost doubled (1). Obesity, overweight, and physical inactivity are regarded to be the major contributing factors for the development of this disease (2). ..Several small clinical studies have suggested the benefit of dietary antioxidants on lowering the risk of developing diabetes and its associated cardiovascular complications...However, the results of th[is long and well-controlled] study... showed no effect from generous supplemental intake of these vitamins on primary prevention of type 2 diabetes.

8. Behaviour may outweigh genetics to prevent obesity - Background: A large number of potential obesity loci have been reported. At least 18 genes have been replicated in a minimum of 5 studies on obesity-related phenotypes. ..Conclusions: Severe obesity in Han Chinese was associated with 3 novel common SNPs for ESR1 and PPAR{gamma}. These 2 genes collectively result in a >5-fold risk of severe obesity.

9. Exercise overcomes DNA to prevent obesity - Background: Intronic variation in the FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) gene has been unequivocally associated with increased body mass index ...This observation has important public health implications because we showed that a genetic susceptibility to obesity induced by FTO variation can be overcome, at least in part, by adopting a physically active lifestyle.

10. Obese friends increase your obesity - Background: Friendship may be uniquely relevant and influential to youths' eating behavior...These results extend previous research by suggesting that the effect of the partners' weight statuses may add to the facilitative effect of familiarity and result in greater energy intake in overweight youth and their friends.

11. Environment after birth causes obesity more than maternal obesity during pregnancy - Conclusions: A higher birth weight is associated with a higher proportion of lean to fat mass as adults. However, these analyses suggest that this association is not determined by individual specific factors in utero (eg, fetal nutrition) but through factors in the shared common environment of the twins.

12. Zinc necessary for healthy DNA - [Worldwide, zinc deficiency affects 2 billion people] Conclusions: Changes in dietary zinc intake affected DNA single-strand breaks. Zinc appears to be a critical factor for maintaining DNA integrity in humans. [The best sources of zinc include meat. Whole grains are a better source of zinc than refined grains...]

13. Fish oil reduces inflammation - Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids can have beneficial effects on human immune cells, such as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). ..Conclusion: These results are the first to show that intake of EPA+DHA for 26 wk can alter the gene expression profiles of PBMCs to a more antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic status.

14. Vitamin C lowers heart disease risk - Conclusions: In this relatively small-scale cross-sectional study of young patients with T1D, lower plasma concentrations of vitamin C seem to be associated with adverse changes in the microcirculation, peripheral arteries, and ventricular repolarization.

15. Important information for women with HIV having babies



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