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AJCN Aug, 2008 - The August American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is nearly 450 pages.  Below are the headlines.  The numbers show where the extracts are at my web site.  Each extract is linked to the actual online article that has all of the details.

SUMMARY - Here's my summary, with more at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln08augajcn.htm and links to the published articles:
EVERYONE SHOULD TAKE VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTS - SYMPOSIUM
A. VITAMIN D is likely to reduce osteoporosis, type 1 diabetes, some cancers, autoimmune diseases (such as multiple sclerosis), and infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis)...
B. MOTHER NEEDS 4,000IU DAILY DURING BREASTFEEDING
C. PRUDENT UPPER LIMIT IS 250nmol/L, which is 10,000 IU per day.  [Studies at Nutrition Investigator recommend supplements of at least 1,000 for younger and 2,000 for mature adults.]

OBESITY/CHOLESTEROL/BLOOD PRESSURE
1. Advice for what to do for HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE - Reduced sodium intake, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, weight loss, and exercise have substantial effects in almost everyone.
2. Avocadoes, nuts, olives give special fats that aid weight loss.
3. BREASTFEEDING PROVIDES YOUR CHILD A LIFETIME OF LOWER CHOLESTEROL  

DIET AND VITAMINS
4. OVERALL PATTERN OF EATING DETERMINES HEALTH
5. 1.8 million elderly (4%) may have weak minds from lack of vitamin B-12 [found in meat]
6. BETA-CAROTENE DOES NOT REDUCE LUNG CANCER RISK

DETAILS -
1. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE - [main study] Our patients constantly struggle with uncertainty as they estimate their health risks across the continuum from having total control over their destiny (ie, "you are what you eat") to complete capitulation (ie, "it's all in your genes")...Hypertension is a complex and common disease, and, therefore, understanding the genetic underpinnings will be similarly complicated...A number of studies have shown an association between these polymorphisms and hypertension. The presence of the AA (or TT) genotype is associated with a family history of hypertension (2), higher concentrations of AGT (3), favorable blood pressure response to the inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (4), and salt-sensitive blood pressure (5)...Reduced sodium intake, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, weight loss, and exercise have substantial effects in almost all subgroups of the population and should continue to be widely and broadly promoted.

2. MONOUNSATURATED FAT AIDS WEIGHT LOSS - Conclusion:Dietary monounsaturated fat intake [food sources] activates synthetic and rapid catabolic pathways for triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism that involve apo E and apo C-III and suppresses the metabolism of more slowly metabolized VLDLs (very low-density lipoprotein) and IDLs (intermediate-density lipoprotein ), which do not contain these apolipoproteins.

3. BREASTFEEDING PROVIDES YOUR CHILD A LIFETIME OF LOWER CHOLESTEROL - Conclusions: Initial breastfeeding (particularly when exclusive) may be associated with lower blood cholesterol concentrations in later life.

4. OVERALL PATTERN OF EATING DETERMINES HEALTH - Background:Analyzing the impact of the intake of many foods simultaneously provides additional knowledge about analyses of nutrients and might make it easier to implement recommendations for the public...Five distinct food patterns were identified, of which one was interpreted as a "healthy" reference pattern. This healthy cluster was distinguished by more frequent consumption of high-fiber and low-fat foods and lower consumption of products rich in fat and sugar. ..Conclusions:It is possible to distinguish food patterns that are related to obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular disease risk factors in contrast with a more healthy pattern conforming with current [SWEDISH] dietary guidelines.

5. DOES U.S. REQUIRE VITAMIN B12 FORTIFICATION - ...the data show that persons with both low vitamin B-12 and high folate concentrations were at particularly high risk of memory impairment and anemia (9). In the NHANES cohort, the proportion of elderly with a high folate and low vitamin B-12 status was 4%... 1.8 million US elderly might be at increased risk of cognitive impairment and anemia because of an imbalance between folate and vitamin B-12...

6. BETA-CAROTENE DOES NOT REDUCE LUNG CANCER RISK - Conclusions: β-Carotene supplementation is not associated with a decrease in the risk of developing lung cancer.

SUPPLEMENT - Vitamin D and Health in the 21st Century: an Update -
A. WHAT VITAMIN D DOES - 1,25(OH)2D exerts its effects by binding to a specific nuclear receptor (vitamin D receptor, or VDR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor that belongs to the superfamily of steroid-thyroid hormone-retinoid nuclear receptors and that recognizes specific DNA sequences known as vitamin D response elements (7). 1,25(OH)2D mineralizes the skeleton and prevents hypocalcemia. In addition to causing skeleton mineralization, it regulates parathyroid growth and PTH production. Vitamin D also maintains serum calcium and phosphorous concentrations at supersaturating levels by increasing active intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate and, in concert with PTH, stimulating bone resorption and renal tubular calcium reabsorption...the VDR appears not only in the target cells of enterocytes, osteoblasts, and distal renal tubule cells, but also in parathyroid gland cells, skin keratinocytes, promyelocytes, lymphocytes, colon cells, pituitary gland cells, and ovarian cells (8). Areas of promising research include osteoporosis, type 1 diabetes, some cancers, autoimmune diseases (such as multiple sclerosis), and infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis)...

B. MOTHER NEEDS 4,000IU DAILY DURING BREASTFEEDING - Research has shown that during lactation, supplements administered directly to the infant can easily achieve vitamin D sufficiency; the mother needs much higher doses (100 µg or 4000 IU per day) to achieve adult-normal 25(OH)D concentrations in her exclusively breastfed infant. In addition, the relation (if any) of vitamin D insufficiency in the fetus or neonate to long-term nonskeletal outcomes such as type 1 diabetes and other chronic diseases needs to be investigated.

C. PRUDENT UPPER LIMIT IS 250nmol/L, which is 10,000 IU per day.

 

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