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AJCN Aug, 2007

SEPARATE Statement on Multivitamins - VERY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND

[Don't get too little OR Too much folate ] Folate and cancer prevention: a closer look at a complex picture " Folate is thought to play a significant role in cancer prevention. Epidemiologic evidence consistently shows inverse associations between higher intakes of dietary folate (or higher concentrations of respective biomarkers) and a reduced risk of cancer of the colon, of other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, and, more recently, of the pancreas... folate's possible cancer-preventive properties have been attributed to its function in the de novo synthesis of thymidylate and purines—nucleotides that are needed for DNA replication and repair. Furthermore, adequate folate status is important for the production of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a universal donor of methyl groups for a number of methylation reactions, including DNA methylation (2). DNA methylation is central to gene silencing and probably to the suppression of repetitive DNA of viral origin, which comprises considerable parts of the genome... Although increases in folate before the existence of preneoplastic lesions (such as aberrant crypt foci or polyps in the colon) can prevent tumor development, supplementation with synthetic folic acid may enhance progression once preneoplastic lesions are present. Similarly, animal experiments suggest that modest supplementation can reduce carcinogenesis, whereas excessive supplementation may increase tumor growth...they observed strong inverse associations between dietary intakes of folate and invasive breast cancer, with risk reductions of >40% in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of intake..."[Enough folate lowers risk of breast cancer] High folate intake is associated with lower breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort "Conclusion: A high folate intake was associated with a lower incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer in this cohort."

[Limit your intake of carbs] Low-carbohydrate nutrition and metabolism " The persistence of an epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes suggests that new nutritional strategies are needed if the epidemic is to be overcome. A promising nutritional approach suggested by this thematic review is carbohydrate restriction. Recent studies show that, under conditions of carbohydrate restriction, fuel sources shift from glucose and fatty acids to fatty acids and ketones, and that ad libitum–fed carbohydrate-restricted diets lead to appetite reduction, weight loss, and improvement in surrogate markers of cardiovascular disease."

[30% of US adults have fatty liver disease]Comparative review of diets for the metabolic syndrome: implications for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease " Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant health problem and affects 70 million adults in the United States (30% of the adult population), and an estimated 20% of these individuals have the most severe form of NAFLD—nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)...A program targeting gradual weight reduction and physical exercise continues to be the gold standard of treatment for all forms of NAFLD...This article reviews the implications of current dietary approaches, including national guidelines and popular weight-loss diets, ..The effects of macronutrient content (carbohydrate, fat, and protein ratios) and specific food components, such as soluble fiber, n–3 fatty acids, and fructose, are discussed..."

[Thin people tend to marry thin people] Assortative mating for obesity "Background: Assortative mating is the nonrandom mating of individuals with respect to phenotype and cultural factors...Conclusions: These data confirm that assortative mating for obesity exists when dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is used to evaluate adiposity. We hypothesize that assortative mating may have contributed to the obesity epidemic because the time course of obesity development has shifted progressively earlier, allowing singles in their late teens and early twenties to more easily distinguish partners with obese and lean phenotypes."

[DHA in fish oil aids blood lipid profile] Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men "Objective: We determined the effects of DHA supplementation on the concentrations of apoproteins; large, medium, and small VLDL, LDL, and HDL particles; and the mean diameters of these particles in fasting and postprandial plasma. ..Conclusion: DHA supplementation may improve cardiovascular health by lowering concentrations of triacylglycerols and small, dense LDL particles."

[Olive oil helps blood lipid profile too] Intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil improves the postprandial prothrombotic profile in hypercholesterolemic patients But note recent New Yorker article stating many olive oils are fake-authentic olive oil should have a pleasant after taste "Conclusions: A virgin olive oil with a high content of phenolic compounds changes the postprandial hemostatic profile to a less thrombogenic state."

[Get enough, but not too much, selenium] Association of low plasma selenium concentrations with poor muscle strength in older community-dwelling adults: the InCHIANTI Study "Conclusions: Low plasma selenium is independently associated with poor skeletal muscle strength in community-dwelling older adults in Tuscany."

[URGENT - Eat plenty of protein during a week or more of bedrest] Calorie restriction accelerates the catabolism of lean body mass during 2 wk of bed rest "Conclusion: Calorie restriction enhanced the catabolic response to inactivity by combining greater protein catabolism in the postabsorptive state with an impaired postprandial anabolic utilization of free amino acids."[Elderly just like young digesting protein] Aging does not impair the anabolic response to a protein-rich meal "Conclusion: Despite differences in the concentration of amino acids in the plasma precursor pool, aging does not impair the ability to acutely synthesize muscle protein after ingestion of a common protein-rich food."

[milk builds muscles better than soy] Consumption of fat-free fluid milk after resistance exercise promotes greater lean mass accretion than does consumption of soy or carbohydrate in young, novice, male weightlifters "Conclusion: We conclude that chronic postexercise consumption of milk promotes greater hypertrophy during the early stages of resistance training in novice weightlifters when compared with isoenergetic soy or carbohydrate consumption."

[most overweight women do not breastfeed enough] High prepregnant body mass index is associated with early termination of full and any breastfeeding in Danish women "Conclusions: These findings extend the observation to a broader range of BMIs that the greater the prepregnant BMI, the earlier the termination of breastfeeding. Together with the fact that this association was evident in a more supportive social context for breastfeeding, these findings suggest a biological basis for the association."

[Whole grains much safer for your heart] Whole- and refined-grain intakes and the risk of hypertension in women "Conclusion: Higher whole-grain intake was associated with a reduced risk of hypertension in middle-aged and older women, which suggests a potential role for increasing whole-grain intake in the primary prevention of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications."

[Long term good diet helps your heart] Prospective study of dietary patterns and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among US women "Conclusion: In women, a negative association was found between a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and fish and the risk of COPD, whereas a positive association was found between a diet rich in refined grains, cured and red meats, desserts, and French fries and the risk of COPD."

Statement on Multivitamins - VERY IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND

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