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J Nutrition Aug, 2005

Krista A. Varady and Peter J. H. Jones
Combination Diet and Exercise Interventions for the Treatment of Dyslipidemia: an Effective Preliminary Strategy to Lower Cholesterol Levels? J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1829-1835.

dyslipidemia is most commonly treated with drug therapy. However, because safety concerns regarding the use of pharmaceutical agents have arisen, a need for alternative nonpharmacological therapies has become increasingly apparent. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) recommends lifestyle therapies, which include a combination of diet and exercise modifications, ...This review examined the cholesterol lowering efficacy of the following 2 NCEP-recommended combination therapies: 1) low saturated fat diets combined with exercise, and 2) nutritional supplementation, i.e., fish oil, oat bran, or plant sterol supplementation, combined with exercise, in the treatment of dyslipidemia. ...These findings suggest that combination lifestyle therapies are an efficacious, preliminary means of improving cholesterol levels in those diagnosed with dyslipidemia, and should be implemented in place of drug therapy when cholesterol levels fall just above the normal range.

Dayong Wu, Liping Liu, Mohsen Meydani, and Simin Nikbin Meydani
Vitamin E Increases Production of Vasodilator Prostanoids in Human Aortic Endothelial Cells through Opposing Effects on Cyclooxygenase-2 and Phospholipase A2
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1847-1853.

Impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation is associated with the initiation and development of atherosclerosis. ...this resulted in a net increase in the production of vasodilator prostanoids. The vitamin E–induced increase in PGI2 and PGE2 production may contribute to its suggested beneficial effect in preserving endothelial function.

Donald K. Layman, Ellen Evans, Jamie I. Baum, Jennifer Seyler, Donna J. Erickson, and Richard A. Boileau
Dietary Protein and Exercise Have Additive Effects on Body Composition during Weight Loss in Adult Women
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1903-1910

This study examined the interaction of 2 diets (high protein, reduced carbohydrates vs. low protein, high carbohydrates) with exercise on body composition and blood lipids in women (n = 48, 46 y old, BMI = 33 kg/m2) during weight loss...The combined effects of diet and exercise were additive for improving body composition. Serum lipid profiles improved in all groups, but changes varied among diet treatments. Subjects in the CHO groups had larger reductions in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, whereas subjects in the PRO groups had greater reductions in triacylglycerol and maintained higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol. This study demonstrated that a diet with higher protein and reduced carbohydrates combined with exercise additively improved body composition during weight loss, whereas the effects on blood lipids differed between diet treatments.

Jian Zhang, James R. Hebert, and Matthew F. Muldoon
Dietary Fat Intake Is Associated with Psychosocial and Cognitive Functioning of School-Aged Children in the United States
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1967-1973

Using cross-sectional data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Survey, 1988–1994, we examined whether dietary fat intake is associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning in school-aged children. Based upon 24-h diet recall interviews, dietary intakes of total fat, SFA, monounsaturated fatty, PUFAs, and cholesterol were estimated in 3666 participants aged 6 to 16 y...We conclude that high intake of PUFAs may contribute to an improved performance on the digit span test. In contrast, increased intake of cholesterol may be associated with a poorer performance.

Supplement: Promises and Perils of Lycopene/Tomato Supplementation and Cancer Prevention:(only paid subscribers can read on line)

Summary notes: Lycopene studies mostly just apply to tomatoes, not to supplements. Tomatoes, esp. cooked as in spaghetti and pizza, reduce risk of cancer, esp. prostate cancer. But tomato paste reduces risk of many forms of cancer, esp. in the respiratory and digestive tracts, stomach and lung. Raw and cooked tomatoes are equally beneficial except for prostate cancer, where cooked reduce risk more than raw. Lycopene does not have any acute toxicity, and safety studies done so far have found no detrimental effects.

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