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J. Nutrition AUGUST, 2004

DAIRY WEIGHT LOSS: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/8/1905

Multiple regression with age, ethnicity, height, Tanner breast stage, physical activity, energy, soda, and calcium intake explained 17% of the variation in iliac skinfold thickness. Calcium intake, age, and physical activity were significantly negatively associated with iliac skinfold thickness whereas height,,,,Soda intake was significantly positively associated with weight in both models (P = 0.01, both models). Decreasing soda and increasing dairy consumption among Asians may help maintain body fat and weight during adolescence.

INTERPRETATION: Soda makes you fat, milk and exercise keep you thin.

JULY ISSUE

FISH OIL "The effect of fish consumption on plasma lipoprotein ...in 22 men and women (over 40 yrs old)...Both diets significantly reduced LDL cholesterol...Our data indicate that...a higher fish content favorably affects VLDL and HDL supspecies." J. Nutr. 134: 1724 (2004)

DIET DAIRY: "A predominance of small dense LDL particles is a well-establishd component of the ... phenotype associated with insulin resistance and increased risk for ...heart disease... 291 healthy men 62-64 yrs. old... individual fatty acids typically found in milk products were associated with a more favorable LDL profile...LDL particle size distribution appears to be modified by dietary factors with an apparently beneficial effect of milk products." J. Nutr. 134: 1729, 2004.

DIET DAIRY "Calcium intake may play a role in the regulation of body weight. Increased Ca intake has been assocatied with lower body weight, BMI, and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies. 362 men...462 women...black and white...The strongest invers assocations appeared in black men and white women...Low calcium intake may be associated with higher adiposity, particularly in men and white women." J. Nutr. 134: 1772, 2004

OMEGA 3 FATS "727 women aged 43-69 yrs...this study suggests that [omega-3] fatty acids are associated with...lower levels of inflammation and endothelial activation, which might explain...preventing cardiovascular disease." J. Nutr. 134: 1806, 2004.

PREGNANCY "Dietary composition of pregnant women is related to size of the baby" "The fetal origins theory of adult disease suggests that term infants who are small for their gestational age have an increased suseptability to chronic disease in adulthood...due to undernutrition during fetal life... 557 women aged 18-41 yrs...percentage of energy derived from protein was positively associated with birth weight and placental weight...percentage of energy from carbohydrate in early and late pregnancy was negatively associated with [health] of the baby" J. Nutr. 134: 1820, 2004.

DAIRY WEIGHT LOSS: http://www.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/134/8/1905

Multiple regression with age, ethnicity, height, Tanner breast stage, physical activity, energy, soda, and calcium intake explained 17% of the variation in iliac skinfold thickness. Calcium intake, age, and physical activity were significantly negatively associated with iliac skinfold thickness whereas height,,,,Soda intake was significantly positively associated with weight in both models (P = 0.01, both models). Decreasing soda and increasing dairy consumption among Asians may help maintain body fat and weight during adolescence.

INTERPRETATION: Soda makes you fat, milk and exercise keep you thin.

JULY ISSUE

FISH OIL "The effect of fish consumption on plasma lipoprotein ...in 22 men and women (over 40 yrs old)...Both diets significantly reduced LDL cholesterol...Our data indicate that...a higher fish content favorably affects VLDL and HDL supspecies." J. Nutr. 134: 1724 (2004)

DIET DAIRY: "A predominance of small dense LDL particles is a well-establishd component of the ... phenotype associated with insulin resistance and increased risk for ...heart disease... 291 healthy men 62-64 yrs. old... individual fatty acids typically found in milk products were associated with a more favorable LDL profile...LDL particle size distribution appears to be modified by dietary factors with an apparently beneficial effect of milk products." J. Nutr. 134: 1729, 2004.

DIET DAIRY "Calcium intake may play a role in the regulation of body weight. Increased Ca intake has been assocatied with lower body weight, BMI, and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies. 362 men...462 women...black and white...The strongest invers assocations appeared in black men and white women...Low calcium intake may be associated with higher adiposity, particularly in men and white women." J. Nutr. 134: 1772, 2004

OMEGA 3 FATS "727 women aged 43-69 yrs...this study suggests that [omega-3] fatty acids are associated with...lower levels of inflammation and endothelial activation, which might explain...preventing cardiovascular disease." J. Nutr. 134: 1806, 2004.

PREGNANCY "Dietary composition of pregnant women is related to size of the baby" "The fetal origins theory of adult disease suggests that term infants who are small for their gestational age have an increased suseptability to chronic disease in adulthood...due to undernutrition during fetal life... 557 women aged 18-41 yrs...percentage of energy derived from protein was positively associated with birth weight and placental weight...percentage of energy from carbohydrate in early and late pregnancy was negatively associated with [health] of the baby" J. Nutr. 134: 1820, 2004.

DIABETES PREVENTION: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/80/2/243

Studies such as the Diabetes Prevention Program have shown that intensive diet and exercise programs are not only highly effective in delaying or preventing the disease but are more cost-effective than even the cheapest drug. GL (glycemic load) is defined as the product of the carbohydrate content per serving of food and its GI (glycemic index). The findings of Schulze et al suggest that the quality of carbohydrate (ie, the GI) is important irrespective of its amount. However, the results also imply that a high GL is of little consequence in insulin-sensitive persons. Thus, a diet based on large amounts of carbohydrate from high-GI sources might be tolerated by insulin-sensitive persons but is excessively challenging to the ß cells of persons who are more insulin-resistant or predisposed to diabetes. A high carbohydrate intake from low-GI sources may well be superior in terms of increasing fat oxidation and improving overall glucose disposition (14). If this is the case, it might explain why the quality of carbohydrate (ie, GI) more often shows a significant association with disease risk (diabetes, heart disease, and cancer) than does the carbohydrate content or GL of the diet.

AJCN 80: 243 (2004)

WEIGHT MANAGEMENT: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/2/257

Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: rationale and strategies. A statement of the American Diabetes Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition

Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80: 257-263.

The American Diabetes Association, the North American Association for the Study of Obesity, and the American Society for Clinical Nutrition have joined together to issue this statement on the use of lifestyle modification in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes.

TABLE 3 Dietary guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association1

Consume a variety of fruit, vegetables, grains, low-fat or nonfat dairy products, fish, legumes, poultry, and lean meats

Limit foods high in saturated fat, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol; substitute with unsaturated fat from vegetables, fish, legumes, and nuts

Emphasize a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products

Limit salt to 6 g/d (2400 mg Na) by choosing foods low in salt and limiting the amount of salt added to food

Limit alcohol intake to 2 drinks/d (men) or 1 drink/d (women)

TABLE 4 Dietary recommendations from the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults1

Nutrient Recommended intake

Saturated fat2,3 <7% of total calories

Monounsaturated fat 20% of total calories

Polyunsaturated fat 10% of total calories

Total fat 25–35% of total calories

Carbohydrate4 50–60% of total calories

Fiber 20–30 g/d

Protein 15% of total calories

Cholesterol3 <200 mg/d

CLAs: http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/80/2/279

Effects of cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, and proinflammatory markers in obese men1,2,3

Conclusions: A CLA preparation containing the purified c9,t11 CLA isomer increased insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation compared with placebo in obese men. Because c9,t11 CLA occurs in commercial supplements as well as in the diet, the present results should be confirmed in larger studies that also include women.

[In contrast] If anything, it seems as if a high intake of dairy products [which contain another isomer, not the one in commercial products] can protect against developing the metabolic syndrome.

 

J Nutrition Apr, 2004

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Biophenols Inhibit Cell-Mediated Oxidation of LDL by Increasing the mRNA Transcription of Glutathione-Related Enzymes; Roberta Masella et al, J. Nutr. 2004 134: 785-791

" It has been reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are involvedin the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and that macrophagesas well as other cells of the arterial wall can oxidize LDLin vitro,… Our findings suggestthat the activation of mRNA transcription of GSH-related enzymesrepresents an important mechanism in phenolic antioxidativeaction."

 

Trans Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissue and the Food Supply Are Associated with Myocardial Infarction; Peter M. Clifton, Jennifer B. Keogh, and Manny Noakes, J. Nutr. 2004 134: 874-879.

" Metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids(TFAs) elevate LDL and lower HDL cholesterol…We conclude that TFAs in adipose tissue are associatedwith an increased risk of coronary artery disease and rapidlydisappear from adipose tissue when not included in margarines. "

Consumption of Foods Rich in Flavonoids Is Related to a Decreased Cardiovascular Risk in Apparently Healthy French Women; Louise I. Mennen et al ; J. Nutr. 2004 134: 923-926

" A high consumption of flavonoids may lower cardiovascular riskthrough their antioxidant capacity. This study evaluated therelation between consumption of foods rich in flavonoids andestimated cardiovascular risk…These results indicate thatin women, a high consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may preventcardiovascular disease."

Extra Virgin Olive Oil Biophenols Inhibit Cell-Mediated Oxidation of LDL by Increasing the mRNA Transcription of Glutathione-Related Enzymes; J. Nutr. 2004 134: 785-791

" It has been reported that oxidized LDL (oxLDL) are involvedin the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and that macrophagesas well as other cells of the arterial wall can oxidize LDLin vitro,… Our findings suggestthat the activation of mRNA transcription of GSH-related enzymesrepresents an important mechanism in phenolic antioxidativeaction."

Trans Fatty Acids in Adipose Tissue and the Food Supply Are Associated with Myocardial Infarction; Peter M. Clifton, Jennifer B. Keogh, and Manny Noakes; J. Nutr. 2004 134: 874-879.

" Metabolic studies have clearly shown that trans fatty acids(TFAs) elevate LDL and lower HDL cholesterol…We conclude that TFAs in adipose tissue are associatedwith an increased risk of coronary artery disease and rapidlydisappear from adipose tissue when not included in margarines. "

Consumption of Foods Rich in Flavonoids Is Related to a Decreased Cardiovascular Risk in Apparently Healthy French Women; Louise I. Mennen et al ; J. Nutr. 2004 134: 923-926

" A high consumption of flavonoids may lower cardiovascular riskthrough their antioxidant capacity. This study evaluated therelation between consumption of foods rich in flavonoids andestimated cardiovascular risk…These results indicate thatin women, a high consumption of flavonoid-rich foods may preventcardiovascular disease."

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