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J Nutrition July, 2010 -See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles at Nutrition investigator .
SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
1. Competent eaters eat their way to much better health - Competent eaters are positive, comfortable, and flexible with eating and are matter-of-fact and reliable about getting enough to eat of enjoyable and nourishing food. Eating Competence (EC) encompasses 4 components: 1) attitudes about eating and enjoyment of food; 2) food acceptance skills that enhance dietary variety; 3) internal regulation skills that address energy balance; and 4) skills and resources for managing mealtime structure, food selection, meal preparation, and orchestration of family meals. Participants with EC compared with those without showed higher fruit intake and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet and tended to consume more fish and fewer dairy products. EC participants tended to have a lower BMI and had a lower fasting blood glucose concentration and serum LDL-:HDL-cholesterol ratio and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration after gender adjustment. EC participants had lower odds ratios (OR) of having a blood glucose concentration >5.6 mmol/L and HDL-cholesterol <1.0 mmol/L. The OR of actively smoking, being obese, or having a serum LDL-cholesterol concentration 3.4 mmol/L were <1.0,
2. 75 years since caloric restriction discovered - Restricting caloric intake by 25% or more increases lifespan. This has been shown in yeast, worms, flies, rodents, even rhesus monkeys and humans.
3. Dietary pattern determines colorectal cancer risk - A fruits and vegetables pattern (pattern 1) and a meat, potatoes, and refined grains pattern (pattern 2) were identified among men and women; a third pattern (alcohol and sweetened beverages) (pattern 3) was identified in men. Pattern 1 had a 38% risk, pattern 2 had about a 200% risk. Following the Dietary Guidelines or a dietary pattern lower in meat, potatoes, high fat, and refined foods and higher in fruits and vegetables may reduce colorectal cancer risk.
4. Aging is primariy cause of weight gain - How diet, exercise, smoking, and weight fluctuation affect weight change was evaluated. Age in both sexes and physical activity among women as well as weight fluctuation and smoking status in men were stronger predictors of weight change than diet quality among FOS adults. Women who stopped smoking over follow-up and had poor diet quality gained the most weight. Preventive interventions need to be sex-specific and consider lifestyle factors.
5. Fruits, Vegetables, and especially fish oil and soy reduce breast lumps - Fibroadenomas are common benign breast conditions among women and account for 50% of breast biopsies performed. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables and the use of oral contraceptives may reduce risk of fibroadenoma.The inverse associations between plasma isoflavone concentrations and RBC EPA and DPA and fibroadenoma risk suggest that higher intakes of soy foods and fatty fish may lower the risk of fibroadenomas.
6. Tocotrienols are even better for immune system than alpha-tocopherol (commercial vitamin E) - alpha-Tocopherol enhances T cell function, whereas little is known in this regard for tocotrienols (T3), the less-known members of the vitamin E family. Together, these results suggest a beneficial effect of T3 in improving the age-related decline in T cell function.[There was about a 100% increase in immune function]
7. Consuming garlic induces beneficial antioxidant enzymes - Ajoene is the active compound that does this.
8. Variation in European diets evaluated - In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar.
"Whatever you do will be insignificant, but it is very important that you do it.” Mahatama Gandhi