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AJCN July, 2007

[Why Nutrition Investigator reviews AJCN and J. Nutr ] Back to the future "Together, the former editors have made the AJCN the world's most widely recognized, peer-reviewed clinical nutrition journal...nutrition scientists "want to be able to identify and measure the concentration of all useful ingredients in human and animal foods. Second, they want to know how each nutrient functions in living organisms, and how these functions interlink, one with another. Third, they want to know the quantitative relations between nutrient intake and health on a life span basis. And fourth, they sense an obligation to assist in the educational activities that will make their work effective in the community at large."

[It is important to take a vitamin E supplement] Evidence-based medicine and vitamin E supplementation "First, Wright et al (2) reported in the same issue of the Journal that the lowest overall risk for mortality in the 19-y follow-up of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study occurred at serum vitamin E concentrations of 13–14 mg/L, and Traber labels that as an optimal concentration for reducing the risk of chronic disease. Second, 75% of men in the United States have serum vitamin E concentrations of <14.6 mg/L, which suggests widespread vitamin E deficiency in her opinion. Third, "given the dietary habits of most Americans," "optimal" concentrations of serum vitamin E are achievable only with vitamin E supplements (1). "

[Fasting is good for health] Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: a review of human and animal trials"The limited human evidence suggests higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations and lower triacylglycerol concentrations but no effect on blood pressure. In terms of cancer risk, there is no human evidence to date, yet animal studies found decreases in lymphoma incidence, longer survival after tumor inoculation, and lower rates of proliferation of several cell types."

[SAMe good for your liver] Role of S-adenosylmethionine, folate, and betaine in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease: summary of a symposium "SAM supplementation may attenuate alcoholic liver disease by decreasing oxidative stress through the up-regulation of glutathione synthesis, reducing inflammation via the down-regulation of tumor necrosis factor- and the up-regulation of interleukin-10 synthesis, increasing the ratio of SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), and inhibiting the apoptosis of normal hepatocytes and stimulating the apoptosis of liver cancer cells. "

[Abdominal obesity hazardous in children] Abdominal obesity and coronary artery calcification in young adults: "Conclusions: Abdominal obesity measured by waist girth or WHR is associated with early atherosclerosis as measured by the presence of CAC in African American and white young adults. This is consistent with an involvement of visceral fat in the occurrence of coronary artery calcium in young adults."

[Sweet tooth is partly genetic] Sweet taste preferences are partly genetically determined: identification of a trait locus on chromosome 16 "Background: Humans have an innate preference for sweet taste, but the degree of liking for sweet foods varies individually...Conclusions: Sweet taste preferences are partly inherited. Chromosome 16p11.2 may harbor genetic variations that affect the consumption of sweet foods."

[High Glycemic Index foods increase acne]A low-glycemic-load diet improves symptoms in acne vulgaris patients: a randomized controlled trial "Conclusion: The improvement in acne and insulin sensitivity after a low-glycemic-load diet suggests that nutrition-related lifestyle factors may play a role in the pathogenesis of acne. "

[Folate helps infant respiratory health] Folate, but not vitamin B-12 status, predicts respiratory morbidity in north Indian children "Conclusions:Poor folate status appears to be an independent risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections in young children. This study also suggests that the protective effect of breastfeeding is partly mediated by folate provided through breast milk."

[Vitamin C is so crucial that it is regulated by hormones] Human adrenal glands secrete vitamin C in response to adrenocorticotrophic hormone "Conclusions: Adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation increases adrenal vein but not peripheral vein vitamin C concentrations. These data are the first in humans showing that hormone-regulated vitamin secretion occurs and that adrenal vitamin C paracrine secretion is part of the stress response. Tight control of peripheral vitamin C concentration is permissive of higher local concentrations that may have paracrine functions." [In this study, vitamin C reaches concentrations of 500 micromolar, far beyond the level provided in serum by an oral dosage of 200 mg per day. This study shows the value of my discovery that a dosage of 500 mg of vitamin C twice a day may be necessary to provide a saturating level of vitamin C in the serum.]

[Kids need lots of vitamin D] Risk factors for low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in otherwise healthy children and adolescents "Conclusion:Low serum 25(OH)D concentrations are prevalent in otherwise healthy children and adolescents in the northeastern United States and are related to low vitamin D intake, race, and season."

VITAMIN D AND CALCIUM REQUIREMENTS - Chair of the USDA Panel that set the vitamin D requirement addressed the Linus Pauling Conference in 2005 and stated forcefully that the 1999 requirement was set much too low, and ought to be as shown in the Table below:

Age 1999 USDA Vitamin D Requirement (IU/d) Nutrition Investigator Vitamin D recommendation (IU/d) Calcium (mg/d)
4-8
200
no comment
800
9-18
200
no comment
1,300
young adults
200
1,000
1,000
51-70
400
1,000
800
71+
600
2,000
800

[Adults need lots of vitamin D] Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D "Conclusions: A 1-y intervention with calcium and vitamin D [1,400 IU/day] reduced bone turnover, significantly increased BMD in patients younger than 70 y, and decreased bone loss in older patients. The effect of treatment was related to physical performance."

[Eating some fried foods is okay ] Intake of fried foods is associated with obesity in the cohort of Spanish adults from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition "Conclusion: Fried food was positively associated with general and central obesity only among subjects in the highest quintile of energy intake from fried food."

[Plenty of Vitamin B6 is important for healthy heart] Plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate and future risk of myocardial infarction in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Potsdam cohort "Background: Retrospective studies indicate that low concentrations of plasma pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP) are associated with cardiovascular events; however, few prospective studies of this issue have been conducted...Results: In the age- and sex-adjusted analysis, subjects in the highest quintile of PLP had a significantly reduced risk of MI (hazard ratio: 0.50"

[Mediterranean diet reduces heart disease]Dietary patterns and cardiovascular mortality in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study "Conclusion: Our findings suggest that frequent consumption of traditional Mediterranean foods is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality after controlling for important risk factors and country of birth."

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