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J Nutrition July, 2006

[proteomics will solve nutrition mysteries] Proteomics and Its Role in Nutrition Research J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1759-1762 There are 100,000 proteins in humans with various physiological functions. The complement of proteins in the organism as well as their interactions is defined as the proteome...Proteomics holds great promise for discoveries in nutrition research, including profiles and characteristics of dietary and body proteins; digestion, absorption, and metabolism of nutrients; functions of nutrients and other dietary factors in growth, reproduction, and health; biomarkers of the nutritional status and disease; and individualized requirements of nutrients. The proteome analysis is expected to play an important role in solving major nutrition-associated problems in humans...

[biotin controls gene expression] Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin Structure and Gene Function by Biotin
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1763-1765. Covalent modifications of histones are a crucial component of epigenetic events that regulate chromatin structures and gene function. Evidence exists that distinct lysine residues in histones are modified by covalent attachment of the vitamin biotin, catalyzed by biotinidase and holocarboxylase synthetase...Biotinylation of histones is a reversible process and depends on the exogenous biotin supply, ...

[red grape juice/wine reduces LDL cholesterol] Red Grape Juice Polyphenols Alter Cholesterol Homeostasis and Increase LDL-Receptor Activity in Human Cells In Vitro
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1766-1773 Red grape juice (RGJ) polyphenols have been shown to reduce circulating levels of LDL cholesterol and to increase LDL receptor activity. ...In the presence of LDL, RGJ increased both the activity and cell surface expression of the LDL receptor, and increased the cell total cholesterol content. ..

[get folate during pregnancy] Maternal Folate Deficiency Affects Proliferation, but Not Apoptosis, in Embryonic Mouse Heart J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1774-1778 Low dietary folate and deficiency of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (Mthfr) were reported to increase the risk for congenital heart defects, ...Our results suggest that proliferation of embryonic myocardium is sensitive to maternal dietary folate and that folate supplementation during pregnancy is important for normal heart development and prevention of heart defects.

[oleic acid, e.g. olive oil, aids weight loss via alterred gene expression] Reduced Fat Mass in Rats Fed a High Oleic Acid–Rich Safflower Oil Diet Is Associated with Changes in Expression of Hepatic PPAR and Adipose SREBP-1c–Regulated Genes
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1779-1785. PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREPB-1c) are fatty acid–regulated transcription factors that control lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression. This study compared a high oleic acid–rich safflower oil (ORSO) diet and a high-butter diet for their effect on adipose mass and expressions of genes regulated by PPAR and SREPB-1c in rats. ..These results suggested that the smaller RWAT mass in rats fed the high-ORSO diet might be related to the higher tissue 18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6). This in turn could upregulate the expressions of fatty acid catabolic genes through the activation of PPAR in the liver and downregulate the expressions of lipid storage and lipogenic gene through the suppression of SREBP-1c in the RWAT.

[high protein intake aids weight loss] Leucine Activates Pancreatic Translational Machinery in Rats and Mice through mTOR Independently of CCK and Insulin
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1792-1799 Feeding stimulates pancreatic digestive enzyme synthesis at the translational level, and this is thought to be mediated by hormones and neurotransmitters. However, BCAAs, particularly leucine, stimulate protein synthesis in several tissues... We conclude that leucine may participate, as a signal as well as a substrate, in activating the translational machinery in pancreatic acinar cells independently of hormonal effects and that this action is through the mTOR pathway.

[drink lots of tea - green or black]Tea Polyphenols and Theaflavins Are Present in Prostate Tissue of Humans and Mice after Green and Black Tea Consumption J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1839-1843. Green and black tea have shown promise in the chemoprevention of prostate cancer...This is the first human study to show that tea polyphenols and theaflavins are bioavailable in the prostate where they may be active in the prevention of prostate cancer. [Note in this study is the first comparison I have seen of the contents of green vs. black tea. EGCG is the polyphenol often reported to be the most beneficial for human health and longevity, though all polyphenols are considered valuable antioxidants.

  Green Tea Black Tea
EGCG(best polyphenol?)
40
66
Total polyphenols
203
238

[high protein diet causes less fat gain] The Reduced Energy Intake of Rats Fed a High-Protein Low-Carbohydrate Diet Explains the Lower Fat Deposition, but Macronutrient Substitution Accounts for the Improved Glycemic Control
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1849-1854. The metabolic effect of high-protein low-carbohydrate (HP) diets on body composition and glucose homeostasis remains incompletely understood. This study assesses the respective roles of the increased protein:carbohydrate ratio (P:C) and the resulting moderate decrease in energy intake in the metabolic effects of HP diets...These data suggest that the reduced energy intake of rats fed a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet explains the lower fat deposition but an increased P:C per se improves glucose homeostasis.

[omega-3 fats prolong heart survival during heart attack] (n-3) Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Prolong Survival following Myocardial Infarction in Rats
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1874-1878. Many clinical studies report that (n-3) PUFAs decrease the incidence of sudden death in patients with coronary artery disease after myocardial infarction (MI)...

[Mediterranean diet is better for health than American food]A Mediterranean Diet Is Cost-Effective in Patients with Previous Myocardial Infarction J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1879-1885. The Mediterranean diet compared with a prudent Western diet was estimated to cost ...US$703... per [year of life] gained per person. There was a mean gain in life years of 0.31/person and a gain in quality-adjusted life years of 0.40/person...the Mediterranean diet is highly cost-effective for persons after a first AMI and represents an exceptional return on investment. ..

[eat your vegetables!] A Diet Rich in Green and Yellow Vegetables Inhibits Atherosclerosis in Mice
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1886-1889 ...antiatherogenic effects of the vegetable diet remained largely unexplained by the variation in plasma lipoproteins or body weight. Although the pathway(s) involved remain uncertain, the results indicate that a diet rich in green and yellow vegetables inhibits the development of atherosclerosis and may therefore lead to a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease...

[body fat is actually an endocrine gland secreting harmful hormones] Adipose Tissue and Adipokines—Energy Regulation from the Human Perspective
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1935-1939...the emergence of the concept of "nonexercise activity thermogenesis" (NEAT) provided new perspectives on energy expenditure. Studies on white adipose tissue have led to the recognition that it is an important endocrine organ, communicating with the brain and peripheral tissues through the secretion of leptin and other adipokines...obesity is characterized by chronic mild inflammation[which causes cancer, diabetes, and heart disease]

 

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