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AJCN July, 2005

Patricia Sinnecker et al, Functional foods for coronary heart disease risk reduction: a meta-analysis using a multivariate approach , Am J Clin Nutr 2005 82: 32-40

Background: It has been difficult to identify the appropriate bioactive substance for the development of new functional foods associated with coronary heart disease, because the results of many clinical studies are contradictory...Phytosterols and soluble fibers had a hypocholesterolemic effect, whereas n–3 fatty acids lowered triacylglycerol and increased total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol.

Jonathan Q Purnell et al, A high-protein diet induces sustained reductions in appetite, ad libitum caloric intake, and body weight despite compensatory changes in diurnal plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations , Am J Clin Nutr 2005 82: 41-48

Background: Ad libitum, low-carbohydrate diets decrease caloric intake and cause weight loss. It is unclear whether these effects are due to the reduced carbohydrate content of such diets or to their associated increase in protein intake...Conclusions: An increase in dietary protein from 15% to 30% of energy at a constant carbohydrate intake produces a sustained decrease in ad libitum caloric intake that may be mediated by increased central nervous system leptin sensitivity and results in significant weight loss. This anorexic effect of protein may contribute to the weight loss produced by low-carbohydrate diets.

Ronald M Krauss et al, Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat change in identical twins with divergent exercise levels, Am J Clin Nutr 2005 82: 181-187

Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme differences in exercise, genes significantly affect changes in LDL, apolipoprotein A-I, lipoprotein(a), and body weight when dietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates. [So genes make a big difference, but most studies indicate environment is about 50% of who and how you are.]




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