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AJCN June, 2008 -The June American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is nearly 450 pages. Below are the headlines. The numbers show where the extracts are at my web site. Each extract is linked to the actual online article that has all of the details.
SUMMARY 1. ADULT OBESITY - Try less stress, skim milk and cheese, more yogurt and whole milk. 2. CHILDHOOD OBESITY - Weight gain should be monitored carefully before 6 months and after age two. 3. OBESITY AND PREGNANCY - Stop smoking before getting pregnant, and monitor weight gain carefully if you were over- or underweight before becoming pregnant. 4. FISH OIL REDUCES HEART DISEASE RISK SUBSTANTIALLY - an entire symposium explains why. 5. 4,000 IU vitamin D every day may be needed in the prevention of cancer, autoimmune disease, diabetes, and other disorders. 6. Vitamin C substantially reduces risk of cataracts. 7. High glycemic foods increase risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer but not breast or pancreatic cancer. 8. Most people with low incomes need more fruits and vegetables. 9. In a small study this month, calcium supplements reduce fracture ratees in people around age 80.
1. ADULT OBESITY 1a. Stess contributes to obesity - Conclusions:We present the first long-term follow-up study in whites showing that the epinephrine response to mental stress is a negative predictor of future BMI, waist circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness after 18 y of follow-up. 1b. Yogurt and whole milk lessen obesity, cheese and skim milk contribute to obesity.
2. CHILDHOOD OBESITY 2a. Two critical windows in early childhood weight control - Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis of 2 critical windows in early childhood associated with the later risk of obesity: up to 6 mo and from 2 y onward. The study of the determinants of growth during these 2 periods is of major importance for the prevention of obesity in adolescence. 2b. The first months of life: a critical period for development of obesity - We have more fat than any other species, perhaps to keep our prodigious brains functioning during times of famine 2c. Rapid weight gain after age 2 discouraged - Conclusions: Rapid gain in BMI before the age of 2 y increased adult lean body mass without excess fat accumulation, whereas rapid gain in BMI in later childhood, despite the concurrent rise in lean mass, resulted in relatively larger increases in fat mass.
3. OBESITY AND PREGNANCY3a. Gain the correct amount of weight during pregnancy - Conclusion: Helping pregnant women to meet the recommended weight gain during pregnancy may be an important and novel strategy for preventing pediatric obesity. 3b. Obese and underweight women should watch weight carefully during pregnancy- Results: High and very high GWG added to the associations of high prepregnancy BMI with cesarean delivery and were strongly associated with high postpartum weight retention. Moreover, greater weight gains and high maternal BMI decreased the risk of growth restriction and increased the risk of the infant's being born large-for-gestational-age or with a low Apgar score. Generally, low GWG was advantageous for the mother, but it increased the risk of having a small baby, particularly for underweight women. 3c. While smoking in first trimester increases obesity of infant - This provides further support for promoting smoking cessation before rather than during early pregnancy
4. FISH OIL REDUCES HEART DISEASE RISK SUBSTANTIALLY . Supplement: Beyond Cholesterol: Prevention and Treatment of Coronary Heart Disease with n-3 Fatty Acids - Fish Oil Symposium - 2a. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential in our diets and can be classified in 2 groups: n–6 fatty acids found in plant seeds and n–3 fatty acids found in marine vertebrates...These studies demonstrate that fish oil fatty acids have beneficial effects on coronary heart disease...Because more than one-half of all coronary heart disease (CHD) and two-thirds of sudden cardiac deaths (SCD) occur among individuals without recognized heart disease, modest consumption of fish or fish oil [1–2 servings/wk of oily fish, or 250 mg/d of EPA+DHA], together with smoking cessation and regular moderate physical activity, should be among the first-line treatments for prevention of fatal CHD and SCD ...the cardioprotective effects of n–3 fatty acids may be attributed to a number of distinct biological effects on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, blood pressure, platelet function, arterial cholesterol delivery, vascular function, and inflammatory responses...when used in doses of 3–4 g/d eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid have profound effects on triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations. 2b. Do not worry unnecessarily about mercury in fish
5. 4,000 IU vitamin D every day may be needed - In recent years, it has been appreciated that vitamin D insufficiency may lead to osteoporotic fractures, and the concept of optimal intake in the prevention of chronic disease was developed. More recently, it has been appreciated that vitamin D may have important extraskeletal roles in the prevention of cancer, autoimmune disease, diabetes, and other disorders.
6. Vitamin C substantially reduces risk of cataracts - Conclusion: Higher intakes of vitamin C or the combined intake of antioxidants had long-term protective associations against development of nuclear cataract in this older population.
7. High glycemic foods increase risk of colorectal and endometrial cancer by 26-36% but not breast or pancreatic cancer.
8. Most people with low incomes need more fruits and vegetables - Socioeconomic status was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake
9. Calcium supplements reduced fractures in this study - 464 participants in the calcium group; participants were aged <80 y; 3 g CaCO3 (1200 mg elemental Ca) daily