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J Nutrition June, 2007
[one reason oatmeal is special] Avenanthramides Are Bioavailable and Have Antioxidant Activity in Humans after Acute Consumption of an Enriched Mixture from Oats " The consumption of polyphenols is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Avenanthramides (AV), alkaloids occurring only in oats, may have anti-atherosclerotic activity... oat AV are bioavailable and increase antioxidant capacity in healthy older adults."
[avoid rebound after dieting] gamma-Linolenate Reduces Weight Regain in Formerly Obese Humans " The purpose of this study was to determine whether -linolenate (GLA) supplementation would suppress weight regain following major weight loss. Fifty formerly obese humans were randomized into a double-blind study and given either 890 mg/d of GLA (5 g/d borage oil) or 5 g/d olive oil (controls) for 1 y. In conclusion, GLA reduced weight regain in humans following major weight loss, suggesting a role for essential fatty acids in fuel partitioning in humans prone to obesity."
[avoid sweetened fruit juice and colas] Consumption of Sweetened Beverages and Intakes of Fructose and Glucose Predict Type 2 Diabetes Occurrence " The role of intakes of different sugars in the development of type 2 diabetes was studied in a cohort of 4,304 men and women aged 40–60 y and initially free of diabetes at baseline in 1967–1972. ..The corresponding relative risks between the extreme quartiles of consumption of food items contributing to sugar intakes were 1.69...for sweetened berry juice and 1.67...for soft drinks. Our findings support the view that higher intake of fructose and glucose and sweetened beverages may increase type 2 diabetes risk."
[White button mushrooms kill cancer and viruses!] Dietary Supplementation with White Button Mushroom Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity in C57BL/6 Mice " Mushrooms are reported to possess antitumor, antiviral, and antibacterial properties. These effects of mushrooms are suggested to be due to their ability to modulate immune cell functions...These results suggest that increased intake of white button mushrooms may promote innate immunity against tumors and viruses through the enhancement of a key component, NK activity."
[Get enough protein to reduce appetite]Inadequate Dietary Protein Increases Hunger and Desire to Eat in Younger and Older Men " Many older people experience changes in appetite and consume marginal or inadequate dietary protein...These results show that younger and older men who consume inadequate protein experience appetite changes that may promote increased food intake."
Supplement: Aromatic Amino Acids and Related Substances
[Nuts or meat needed to maintain your neurotransmitters ] Tyrosine, Phenylalanine, and Catecholamine Synthesis and Function in the Brain " Aromatic amino acids in the brain function as precursors for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (substrate tryptophan) and the catecholamines [dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine; substrate tyrosine (Tyr)]. Unlike almost all other neurotransmitter biosynthetic pathways, the rates of synthesis of serotonin and catecholamines in the brain are sensitive to local substrate concentrations, particularly in the ranges normally found in vivo. As a consequence, physiologic factors that influence brain pools of these amino acids, notably diet [food sources of aromatic amino acids] , influence their rates of conversion to neurotransmitter products, with functional consequences...Increasing the amount of protein ingested, acutely (single meal) or chronically (intake over several days), raises brain Tyr concentrations and stimulates catecholamine synthesis. "
Supplement: 6th Amino Acid Assessment Workshop
[Arginine necessary for healthy immune system - Eat Nuts to get arginine] Arginine and Immunity " For many years, dietary arginine supplementation, often combined with other substances, has been used as a mechanism to boost the immune system...Emerging knowledge promises to clear this controversy and allow for arginine's safe use. In myeloid cells, arginine is mainly metabolized either by inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthases (iNOS) or by arginase 1, enzymes that are stimulated by T helper 1 or 2 cytokines, respectively...T lymphocytes depend on arginine for proliferation, -chain peptide and T-cell receptor complex expression, and the development of memory."