This may be most important breakthrough in nutrition knowledge I have seen since vitamin C and E. Please see the book The China Study, published in 2004, for the whole-food, plant-based diet for optimal health
[A lot of articles this month. I hope you are patient. Good nutrition will provide many more years to finish all of the other tasks you choose.]
[one side of a scientific/medical debate] The metabolic syndrome: is this diagnosis necessary?
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1237-1247 Values of insulin-mediated glucose disposal vary continuously throughout a population of apparently healthy persons, and a difference of 600% exists between the most insulin-sensitive and the most insulin-resistant persons. Approximately 50% of this variability can be attributed to differences in adiposity (25%) and fitness (25%), with the remaining 50% likely of genetic origin. The more insulin-resistant a person, the more likely that he or she will develop some degree of glucose intolerance, high triacylglycerol and low HDL concentrations, essential hypertension, and procoagulant and proinflammatory states, all of which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). ..diagnosing the metabolic syndrome in a person has neither pedagogical nor clinical utility...
[the other side of a scientific/medical debate] Does a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome have value in clinical practice?
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1248-1251There are 2 major, interacting causes of the metabolic syndrome—obesity and endogenous metabolic susceptibility... A clinical diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome is useful because it affects therapeutic strategy in patients at higher risk...The latter approach emphasizes lifestyle therapies (weight reduction and increased exercise), which target all of the risk factors. This approach is also the foundation of other therapies for targeting multiple risk factors together by striking at the underlying causes, as in the development of drugs to promote weight reduction and to reduce insulin resistance. Treating the underlying causes does not rule out the management of individual risk factors, but it will add strength to the control of multiple risk factors.
[overweight and drinking causes liver disease] Additive effects of moderate drinking and obesity on serum -glutamyl transferase
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1252-1253 Fatty liver (FL) is one of the most frequent hepatic conditions diagnosed in the Western world. Chronic alcohol consumption as well as overweight and obesity associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and the metabolic syndrome are the major pathophysiologic factors resulting in FL. Alcoholic FL (AFL) as well as nonalcoholic FL (NAFL) can progress to more advanced liver disease, including inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer (HCC). Thus, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and NAFL disease (NAFLD) are the most frequent types of liver diseases in North America and Europe and account for an extremely high prevalence of liver cirrhosis and related deaths...Early detection of FL includes its noninvasive verification, mostly done by hepatic ultrasound, and identification of its cause, which includes the patient's alcohol history or the diagnosis of a metabolic syndrome and peripheral insulin resistance. ..
[eating fruits and veggies reduces osteoporosis] Fruit and vegetables: the unexpected natural answer to the question of osteoporosis prevention?
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1254-1255 We are in an epidemic of osteoporosis. There can be no doubt about that. Global estimates for 2006 are that 1 in 3 women and 1 in 10 men now aged 55 y will have osteoporosis in their lifetime...The evidence base for the disease-preventing benefits of high intakes of fruit and vegetables continues to expand with respect to ischemic heart disease; stomach, bowel, and breast cancer; and, most recently, stroke (1). The message "eat your fruit and vegetables" is a sensible one (2); the only debate is about the recommended number of portions. For osteoporosis, the evidence from a combination of observational, experimental, clinical, and intervention studies strongly points to a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and indexes of bone health...the results indicate significant positive associations between fruit and vegetable intakes and both spine size-adjusted bone mineral content and whole-body bone mineral density in adolescent boys and girls aged 16–18 y. In the older women, aged 60–83 y, significant positive associations were found between spine size-adjusted bone mineral content and fruit intake. The size of the effect in the older women was impressive: doubling the fruit intake would have resulted in a 5% increment in spine bone mineral content....
[strong evidence for value of probiotics] Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks?
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1256-1264 Probiotics have been advocated for the prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases, and there is strong evidence for their efficacy in some clinical scenarios...Therefore, the effects of one probiotic strain should not be generalized to others without confirmation in separate studies...[article contains details of clinical trials/studies on specific probiotics]
[clinical trials indicate that purified carotenoids are hazardous to the heart] Carotenoids and cardiovascular health
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1265-1271It is well known that a greater intake of fruit and vegetables can help prevent heart diseases and mortality. ..Potential beneficial substances include antioxidant vitamins, folate, fiber, and potassium. Antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetables, such as vitamin C, carotenoids, and flavonoids, may influence the risk of CVD by preventing the oxidation of cholesterol in arteries. In this review, the role of main dietary carotenoids, ie, lycopene, ß-carotene, -carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin, in the prevention of heart diseases is discussed. ..more information is needed to ascertain the association between the intake of single nutrients, such as carotenoids, and the risk of CVD. Currently, the consumption of carotenoids in pharmaceutical forms for the treatment or prevention of heart diseases cannot be recommended.
[why nutrition investigator exists] From nutrition scientist to nutrition communicator: why you should take the leap
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1272-1275 Media reports about new nutrition research are abundant, but they may confuse the public when unqualified sources are quoted, findings are reported out of context, or results appear to contradict previous studies. The nutrition scientist who conducts the research is best qualified to communicate the findings accurately and within context.
[eat your bananas - rich in potassium] Effect of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality and medical expenses of elderly men
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1289-1296 Background:The beneficial effects of potassium-enriched salt on blood pressure have been reported in a few short-term trials. The long-term effects of potassium-enriched salt on cardiovascular mortality have not been carefully studied...Conclusions:This study showed a long-term beneficial effect on CVD mortality and medical expenditure associated with a switch from regular salt to potassium-enriched salt in a group of elderly veterans. The effect was likely due to a major increase in potassium and a moderate reduction in sodium intakes.
[men and women have different brain responses to foods] Effect of satiety on brain activation during chocolate tasting in men and women
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1297-1305 Objective:We investigated the effect of satiation with chocolate on the brain activation associated with chocolate taste in men and women...Conclusions:Our results indicate that men and women differ in their response to satiation and suggest that the regulation of food intake by the brain may vary between the sexes. ..
[pregnancy] Effect of n–3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of women with low-risk pregnancies on pregnancy outcomes and growth measures at birth: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1337-1344
[living with cancer] Definition of cancer cachexia: effect of weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation on functional status and prognosis
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1345-1350 Conclusions: Weight loss alone does not identify the full effect of cachexia on physical function and is not a prognostic variable. The 3-factor profile (weight loss, reduced food intake, and systemic inflammation) identifies patients with both adverse function and prognosis. Shortened survival applies particularly to cachectic patients with localized disease, thereby reinforcing the need for early intervention.
[reduce fried food, chips, soda, etc.] Dietary energy density is associated with energy intake and weight status in US adults
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1362-1368 Background: Laboratory-based investigations indicate that the consumption of foods with a low energy density (kcal/g) decreases energy intake. Although low-energy-dense diets are recommended for weight management, relations between energy density, energy intake, and weight status have not been clearly shown in free-living persons...Conclusions: Adults consuming a low-energy-dense diet are likely to consume more food (by weight) but to have a lower energy intake than do those consuming a higher-energy-dense diet. The energy density of a variety of dietary patterns, including higher-fat diets, can be lowered by adding fruit and vegetables. Our findings support the hypothesis that a relation exists between the consumption of an energy-dense diet and obesity and provide evidence of the importance of fruit and vegetable consumption for weight management.
[inflammation is DANGEROUS-click here to read more about it] Dietary patterns are associated with biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1369-1379 Objective: We examined relations between dietary patterns and markers of inflammation and endothelial activation...Results: Four dietary patterns were derived by using factor analysis. The fats and processed meats pattern (fats, oils, processed meats, fried potatoes, salty snacks, and desserts) was positively associated with CRP ..., IL-6..., and homocysteine.... The beans, tomatoes, and refined grains pattern (beans, tomatoes, refined grains, and high-fat dairy products) was positively related to sICAM-1... In contrast, the whole grains and fruit pattern (whole grains, fruit, nuts, and green leafy vegetables) was inversely associated with CRP, IL-6, homocysteine ..., and sICAM-1 ..., and the vegetables and fish pattern (fish and dark-yellow, cruciferous, and other vegetables) was inversely related to IL-6....
[whole grain reducing gum disease] Whole-grain and fiber intakes and periodontitis risk in men
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1395-1400 Conclusion: Increasing whole grain in the diet without increasing total energy intake may reduce periodontitis risk.
Vegetables, fruit, and antioxidant-related nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a National Cancer Institute–Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based case-control study
Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1401-1410 Conclusion: Higher intakes of vegetables, lutein and zeaxanthin, and zinc are associated with a lower non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk.
[take 800IU vitamin D or more daily] Prevalence and functional significance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in Asian Indians AJCN 83, No. 6, 1411-1419 Background: Recent studies show a wide prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in Asian Indians. ..Conclusion: Functionally significant 25(OH)D deficiency affecting BMD at the hip region is prevalent in urban Asian Indians. However, variation in BMD at the spine and forearm is related to VDR and PTH gene polymorphisms rather than to vitamin D status, at least in this hypovitaminotic D population.
[Get your fish oil please! ] Supplement: n–3 Fatty Acids: Recommendations for Therapeutics and Prevention: sent separately. Get your fish oil please!