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AJCN June, 2004

Susanna C Larsson, Maria Kumlin, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, and Alicja Wolk

Dietary long-chain n–3 fatty acids for the prevention of cancer: a review of potential mechanisms Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79: 935-945

…n–3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain polyunsaturatedfatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid,present in fatty fish and fish oils inhibit carcinogenesis.The epidemiologic data on the association between fish consumption,as a surrogate marker for n–3 fatty acid intake, and cancerrisk are, however, somewhat less consistent. This review highlightscurrent knowledge of the potential mechanisms of the anticarcinogenicactions of n–3 fatty acids… Several molecular mechanisms whereby n–3 fatty acids maymodify the carcinogenic process have been proposed. These includesuppression of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoid biosynthesis;influences on transcription factor activity, gene expression,and signal transduction pathways; alteration of estrogen metabolism;increased or decreased production of free radicals and reactiveoxygen species; and mechanisms involving insulin sensitivityand membrane fluidity.

Cees de Graaf, Wendy AM Blom, Paul AM Smeets, Annette Stafleu, and Henk FJ Hendriks

Biomarkers of satiation and satiety Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79: 946-961

Three currently available biomarkersfor satiety are decreases in blood glucose in the short term(<5 min), which have been shown to be involved in meal initiation;leptin changes during longer-term (>2–4 d) negativeenergy balance; and ghrelin concentrations, which have beenimplicated in both short-term and long-term energy balance.The next challenge in this research area is to identify foodingredients that have an effect on biomarkers of satiation,satiety, or both. These ingredients may help consumers to maintaintheir energy intake at a level consistent with a healthy bodyweight.

Tanja VE Kral, Liane S Roe, and Barbara J Rolls

Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79: 962-968

Conclusions: The energy density and the portion size of a foodact independently to affect energy intake. The findings indicatethat large portions of foods with a high energy density mayfacilitate the overconsumption of energy. [translation: starting with a smaller serving is likely to decrease how much you eat.]

David J Baer, Joseph T Judd, Beverly A Clevidence, and Russell P Tracy

Dietary fatty acids affect plasma markers of inflammation in healthy men fed controlled diets: a randomized crossover study Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79: 969-973.

Conclusions: These data provide evidence that dietary fattyacids can modulate markers of inflammation. Although stearicacid minimally affects LDL cholesterol, it does appear to increasefibrinogen concentrations.[This study compares diets enriched with carbohydrate, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, or trans-fat, and measured markers of inflammation.  Stearic acid is saturated fat.  Both saturated fat and trans-fat increased markers for inflammation.  Inflammation is now known to cause heart disease.  So this study demonstrates that consumption of a saturated fat meal, like a big hamburger and French fries, or consumption of margarine, has a clear mechanism to contribute to a heart attack.]

Lars O Dragsted,et al

The 6-a-day study: effects of fruit and vegetables on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense in healthy nonsmokers Am J Clin Nutr 2004 79: 1060-1072

Conclusions: Fruit and vegetables increase erythrocyte glutathioneperoxidase activity and resistance of plasma lipoproteins tooxidation more efficiently than do the vitamins and mineralsthat fruit and vegetables are known to contain. Plasma proteincarbonyl formation at lysine residues increases because of thevitamins and minerals in fruit and vegetables. [This study is from Denmark, where they have a six-a-day campaign, in contrast to the US where we promoted five-a-day.  Now, the US is promoting 9-a-day, based on progressively more evidence suggesting the value of a "stone-age" diet.]

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