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AJCN May, 2008

Welcome to the many new readers who saw the stories on my weight loss research.  Based on article 8. below, I am developing an even better formula.  Please go to this link with your web browser to see the extracts and links to actual peer-reviewed articles.
http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln08mayajcn.htm

SUMMARY -The May American Journal of Clinical Nutrition is practically a book.  Below are the headlines.  The numbers show where the extracts are at my web site.  Each extract is linked to the actual online article that has all of the details,

WHAT TO EAT - DETAILS OF CHOICES FOR A GREAT DIET:
BENEFITS OF THAT DIET: Increasing antioxidant intake reduces inflammation
Healthy eating reduces chronic disease risk
18. Vitamin K is important for bone health - What to eat to get enough vitamin K
19. Get lutein and fish oil to avoid macular degeneration
20. Symposium on Quality of Different Protein In the Diet - Part 1-benefits of high protein diet; Part 2 - Mature people must eat more protein; Part 3- Protein important for bone health; Part 4 - Double the Daily Value for protein is healthy; Part 5-BCAAs have special benefits

WHAT NOT TO EAT
16. French fries/potato chips contain a potent carcinogen
14. Eating a high carb diet may cause breast cancer
15. Taking a multivitamin/mineral may cause breast cancer
9. High glycemic index foods (sugar and starch) cause inflammation
12. Turmeric but not cinnamon may contribute to kidney stones
11. Coffee impairs blood sugar regulation for a short while

OBESITY
5. Cognitive therapy reduces obesity - [reading these Nutrition Investigator stories regularly will help!]
8. Short fats (C12) in coconut oil suppress fat absorption
10. Why rapid weight loss leads to rebound
13. Rapid weight gain from birth to 2 yrs old is unhealthy in full term infants
3. Avoid food as reward for children
4. Gastric bypass requires specific vitamin supplements in addition to a multivitamin to maintain health
2. Fat belly causes diabetes

DISEASE
6. Fish oil alleviates depression
7. Fish oil alleviates attention deficit disorder
17. Ways to reduce your risk for gout

JUSTICE
1. Social class predicts diet

DETAILS - CHOICE FOR A GREAT DIET: Five medium-sized portions a day Fruit: red berries, oranges, grapefruit, plums (red), grapes (black), pineapple Five medium-sized portions a day Fruit: apple, pear, banana, grape (white), melon
Vegetable: spinach, beet, Swiss chard, pepper (red bell), Brussels sprouts, broccoli, rocket, radicchio, olive (black), mushrooms, broad beans Vegetable: aubergine, leek, potatoes, courgettes, French beans, carrots, celery, lettuce, cucumber, radish, beans
At least 2 cups of hot beverages a day Coffee (espresso, cappuccino, American coffee, barley coffee), tea (black and green), hot chocolate No hot beverages allowed —
At least 200 mL of drink Fresh-squeezed orange juice, fresh-squeezed grapefruit juice, blueberry juice, mixed juice (orange, carrot, and lemon), orange juice No restrictions of the following drinks Apple juice, cola,1 soda2
Fats allowed Extra-virgin olive oil Fats allowed Refined olive oil
Alcoholic beverages allowed (if used) Red wine Alcoholic beverages allowed (if used) White wine, beer
Sweets allowed Black chocolate bars, red berries ice cream Sweets allowed White chocolate bars, vanilla ice cream
Other items allowed Walnuts, red vinegar , Peanuts, white vinegar

BENEFITS OF THAT DIET: Increasing antioxidant intake reduces inflammation - Conclusion: Selecting foods according to their TAC markedly affects antioxidant intake and modulates hepatic contribution to systemic inflammation without affecting traditional markers of antioxidant status.

More on healthy diet benefits: Healthy eating reduces chronic disease risk - 4 dietary patterns -1. unhealthy (white bread, processed meat, fries, and full-cream milk), 2. sweet (white bread, biscuits, cakes, processed meat, and high-fat dairy products), 3. Mediterranean-like (fruit, vegetables, rice, pasta, and wine), and 4. healthy (fruit, vegetables, whole-meal bread, low-fat dairy, and little alcohol). Conclusions: The healthy eating pattern reduced risks of diabetes and major coronary events. Such dietary patterns offer considerable health benefits to individuals and contribute to public health.

1. Social class predicts diet - A large body of epidemiologic data show that diet quality follows a socioeconomic gradient. Whereas higher-quality diets are associated with greater affluence, energy-dense diets that are nutrient-poor are preferentially consumed by persons of lower socioeconomic status (SES) and of more limited economic means...the reported associations between diet quality and better health, found in so many epidemiologic studies, may have been confounded by unobserved indexes of social class. Conversely, if limited economic resources are causally linked to low-quality diets, some current strategies for health promotion, based on recommending high-cost foods to low-income people, may prove to be wholly ineffective.

2. Fat belly causes diabetes - There is a great deal of evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are of importance in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Whereas the genetic factors are still poorly understood, numerous studies have shown that obesity (in particular, central obesity), physical inactivity, a high-fat diet, and a diet rich in saturated fatty acids increase the risk of diabetes (1). T2DM is increasingly common among young people and even children; it constitutes a major health problem in both developed and developing countries; and, with obesity, it is becoming one of the largest challenges to health care systems...obesity is one of the main risk factors for the development of T2DM (1). Moreover, visceral adipocytes release an excess amount of free fatty acids (FFAs) and are very resistant to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (3).

3. Avoid food as reward for children - These results show that overweight children find food more reinforcing than do nonoverweight children.

4. Gastric bypass requires more than multivitamin - Two years after gastric bypass, a mean amount of 2.9 ± 1.4 specific supplements had been prescribed for each patient, including vitamin B-12, iron, calcium + vitamin D, and folic acid.

5. Cognitive therapy reduces obesity - Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) teaches behavioral and cognitive strategies that focus on achieving and maintaining lifestyle changes...A 10-wk CBT program followed by 10 wk of fortnightly phone contact improved body composition in overweight and obese adolescents. Changes in soft drink consumption may have contributed to this benefit.

6. Fish oil alleviates depression - The objective was to analyze the relation between plasma fatty acids and severity of depressive symptomatology (DS) in French elderly community dwellers...Higher plasma EPA was associated with a lower severity of DS in elderly subjects, especially those taking antidepressants.

7. Fish oil alleviates attention deficit disorder - Background:Increasing evidence supports n–3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation for patients with psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. ..Omega-3 fats increased attention more than three fold.

8. Short fats (C12) in coconut oil suppress fat absorption - Conclusions:At the load administered, C12 (lauric acid), but not C18 (oleic acid), suppressed energy intake, and C12 was a more potent stimulant of basal pyloric pressure.

9. High glycemic index foods (sugar and starch) cause inflammation - Background:High–glycemic index diets have been linked to greater risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Postprandial glycemia within the normal range may promote oxidative stress and inflammatory processes underlying the development of disease...Conclusions:The findings suggest that high-normal physiologic increases in blood glucose after meals aggravate inflammatory processes in lean, young adults. This mechanism may help to explain relations between carbohydrates, glycemic index, and the risk of chronic disease. Here's why fatty foods cause inflammation!

10. Why rapid weight loss leads to rebound - Weight regain after weight loss may not be due primarily to voluntary return to social habits but may be explained by changes in peripheral hormonal signals activating hunger and encouraging feeding behavior.

11. Coffee impairs blood sugar regulation - Conclusion: The ingestion of caffeinated coffee (CC) with either a high or low GI meal significantly impairs acute blood glucose management and insulin sensitivity compared with ingestion of decaffeinated coffee. Future investigations are warranted to determine whether CC is a risk factor for insulin resistance.

12. Turmeric but not cinnamon may contribute to kidney stones - Conclusions: The percentage of oxalate that was water soluble differed markedly between cinnamon (6%) and turmeric (91%), which appeared to be the primary cause of the greater urinary oxalate excretion/oxalate absorption from turmeric. The consumption of supplemental doses of turmeric, but not cinnamon, can significantly increase urinary oxalate levels, thereby increasing risk of kidney stone formation in susceptible individuals.

13. Rapid weight gain from birth to 2 yrs old is unhealthy in full term infants - Conclusions: The occurrence of rapid weight gain between birth and 2 y and the magnitude of its effect on body fat percentage development in appropriate-for-gestational age children is influenced by both intrauterine and postnatal exposures.

14. High carb intake associated with breast cancer - Conclusions: Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among overweight women and women with large waist circumference. Carbohydrate intake may also be associated with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer.

15. Multivitamin/mineral use associated with breast cancer - Background: The effect of multivitamin-multimineral supplements on the occurrence of chronic diseases, such as breast cancer, is unclear. Breast density is increasingly used as a biomarker of breast cancer risk...Conclusion: Regular use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements may be associated with higher mean breast density among premenopausal women.

16. French fries/potato chips contain potent carcinogen - in 2002, Swedish scientists reported the presence of acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich foods produced at high temperatures, such as French fries and potato chips...We found some indications for a positive association between dietary acrylamide and renal cell cancer risk.

17. Ways to reduce your risk for gout - Conclusion: These findings, based on male runners, suggest that the risk of gout is lower in men who are more physically active, maintain ideal body weight, and consume diets enriched in fruit and limited in meat and alcohol. IF YOU SUFFER FROM GOUT, PLEASE SEE DETAILS IN THE RESULTS.

18. Vitamin K is important for bone health - Vitamin K1 intake was associated with markers of bone health. Vitamin K is found chiefly in leafy green vegetables, particularly the dark green ones such as spinach and kale; Brassica (e.g. cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts) are also high in Vitamin K as are some fruits such as avocado and kiwifruit.

19. Get lutein and fish oil to avoid macular degeneration - Conclusions: Lutein supplementation increased macular pigment optical density eccentrically. DHA [fish oil] resulted in central increases. These results may be due to changes in lipoproteins. Lutein and DHA may aid in prevention of age-related macular degeneration.

20. Symposium on Quality of Different Protein In the Diet - Dietary protein recommendations have traditionally been based on preventing deficiency [ie, the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)] as opposed to promoting optimal health.

Notes from articles: 1. BENEFITS OF HIGH PROTEIN DIET - Although any dietary or lifestyle change must be personalized, controlled energy intake in association with a moderately elevated protein intake may represent an effective and practical weight-loss strategy. Potential beneficial outcomes associated with protein ingestion include the following: 1) increased satiety—protein generally increases satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate or fat and may facilitate a reduction in energy consumption under ad libitum dietary conditions; 2) increased thermogenesis—higher-protein diets are associated with increased thermogenesis, which also influences satiety and augments energy expenditure; and 3) maintenance or accretion of fat-free mass. 2. AGING - Sarcopenia is a complex, multifactorial process facilitated by a combination of factors including the adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle and a less than optimal diet. there is general agreement that moderately increasing daily protein intake beyond 0.8 g·kg–1·d–1 may enhance muscle protein anabolism and provide a means of reducing the progressive loss of muscle mass with age. 3. BONE HEALTH - Loss of bone mass (osteopenia) and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) that occur with age are closely related. Factors that affect muscle anabolism, including protein intake, also affect bone mass. Optimal protein intake for bone health is likely higher than current recommended intakes, particularly in the elderly. 4. Protein intake can be increased to double the RDA or higher without risk to healthy individuals. 5. BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) have special benefits.

Leucine and Total BCAA content of foods

Protein
Leucine
BCAA
Whey protein isolate
14%
26%
Milk protein
10%
21%
Egg protein
8.5%
20%
Muscle protein
8%
18%
Soy protein isolate
8%
18%
Wheat protein
7%
15%

 

 

 

 

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