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J Nutrition May, 2007

[Psyllium and sterols reduce cholesterol ] A Combination of Psyllium and Plant Sterols Alters Lipoprotein Metabolism in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects by Modifying the Intravascular Processing of Lipoproteins and Increasing LDL Uptake " We previously demonstrated that a diet therapy involving consumption of 7.28 g psyllium (PSY) and 2 g of plant sterols (PS) per day reduced LDL cholesterol from 3.6 ± 0.7 to 3.1 ± 0.8 mmol/L (P < 0.01) and decreased the number of intermediate density lipoprotein particles and the smaller LDL and HDL subfractions in hypercholesterolemic individuals (n = 33)."

[CLAs convert fat to muscle]Conjugated Linoleic Acid Supplementation for Twelve Weeks Increases Lean Body Mass in Obese Humans " ... CLA (50:50 ratio of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers) supplementation for 12 wk in otherwise healthy obese humans... Lean body mass increased by 0.64 kg in the 6.4 g/d CLA group (P < 0.05) after 12 wk of intervention. Significant decreases in serum HDL-cholesterol and sodium, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, and significant increases in serum alkaline phosphatase, C-reactive protein, and IL-6, and white blood cells occurred in the 6.4 g/d CLA group, although all values remained within normal limits. The intervention was well tolerated and no severe adverse events were reported, although mild gastrointestinal adverse events were reported in all treatment groups. In conclusion, whereas CLA may increase lean body mass in obese humans, it may also increase markers of inflammation in the short term. "

[DAG helps artherosclerosis] Dietary Diacylglycerol Induces the Regression of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits "long-term consumption of DAG, which reduces postprandial lipemia, might be useful for the regression of atherosclerosis by stimulating hepatic lipid catabolism and thereby modulating monocyte/macrophage migration and aortic lipid accumulation. "

[Polyphenols and vitamin A reduce autoimmune diabetes] Diets Rich in Polyphenols and Vitamin A Inhibit the Development of Type I Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice " Type I juvenile diabetes mellitus is characterized by the infiltration of activated T lymphocytes and monocytes into the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, resulting in inflammation and progressive destruction of the insulin-producing ß cells...These data suggest that diets rich in polyphenols or vitamin A have protective effects against autoimmune inflammatory attack of the islet ß cells and have the potential to reduce the onset and pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes."

[Get your flavonoids ] Estimated Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Major Food Sources of U.S. Adults " The flavonoid density of diets increased with age (P < 0.001) and income (P < 0.05). It was higher in women (P < 0.001), Caucasians (P < 0.001), and vitamin supplement users (P < 0.001) and lower in adults with high levels of nonleisure time physical activity (P < 0.01) compared with their counterparts. The greatest daily mean intake of flavonoids was from the following foods: tea (157 mg), citrus fruit juices (8 mg), wine (4 mg), and citrus fruits (3 mg).

[Excess iron causes infections] Host-Pathogen Interactions: Can Micronutrients Tip the Balance? " Nutrients are essential to the human host and to its invading pathogens. ..we provide some cautionary tales in the form of intervention studies in which the administration of other micronutrients yielded unpredicted adverse effects. "

[Antioxidants reduce disease] Selenium and Vitamin E Status: Impact on Viral Pathogenicity " Selenium (Se), an essential trace element, and vitamin E, a lipid soluble antioxidant, are important mediators for protection against oxidative stress. Recent work has demonstrated that deficiencies in either Se or vitamin E result in increased viral pathogenicity and altered immune responses."

[Zinc helps immunity] Zinc: Mechanisms of Host Defense " Zinc deficiency in humans decreases the activity of serum thymulin (a thymic hormone), which is required for maturation of T-helper cells...We conclude that zinc has an important role in cell-mediated immune functions and also functions as antiinflammatory and antioxidant agent."

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