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J Nutrition May, 2006

[how food consumption regulates genes] Gene reHepatic Gene Regulation by Glucose and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: A Role for ChREBP
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1145-1149. "The liver is a major site for carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). In the last decade, increasing evidence has emerged to show that nutrients, in particular, glucose and fatty acids, are able to regulate hepatic gene expression in a transcriptional manner. Indeed, although insulin was long thought to be the major regulator of hepatic gene expression, it is now clear that glucose metabolism rather that glucose itself also contributes substantially to the coordinated regulation of carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis in liver...

[Chocolate blocks cancer cell growth] Cocoa Polyphenols Inhibit Phorbol Ester-Induced Superoxide Anion Formation in Cultured HL-60 Cells and Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Activation of NF-B and MAPKs in Mouse Skin In Vivo
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1150-1155 "We investigated the antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of a flavonoid-rich polyphenolic fraction of cocoa. ..Since cellular proinflammatory and prooxidant states are closely linked to tumor promotion, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of CP may constitute the basis of possible antitumor promoting effects of this phytochemical."

[sesame seeds for post-menopause] Sesame Ingestion Affects Sex Hormones, Antioxidant Status, and Blood Lipids in Postmenopausal Women
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1270-1275 "Sesame ingestion has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and antioxidative ability in animals. Sesamin, a sesame lignan, was recently reported to be converted by intestinal microflora to enterolactone, a compound with estrogenic activity and also an enterometabolite of flaxseed lignans, which are known to be phytoestrogens. ..These results suggest that sesame ingestion benefits postmenopausal women by improving blood lipids, antioxidant status, and possibly sex hormone status."

[girls get strong bones from calcium] Girls' Calcium Intake Is Associated with Bone Mineral Content During Middle Childhood
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1281-1286 "We examined longitudinally the association between calcium intake and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in 151 non-Hispanic white girls. ..Results from the present study provide new longitudinal evidence that calcium intake, especially calcium from dairy foods, can have a favorable effect on girls' TBBMC during middle childhood."

[lycopene and vitamin E slow prostate cancer] Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1287-1293 "Epidemiologic studies have repeatedly associated a high intake of lycopene and vitamin E with reduced prostate cancer risk. The present study examined the ability of the 2 compounds to reduce tumor growth and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels ...Our data provide evidence that lycopene combined with vitamin E may inhibit the growth of prostate cancer and that PSA can serve as a biomarker of tumor response for this treatment regimen."

[low income and energy-dense food promote obesity in children] Dietary Energy Density Is Associated with Selected Predictors of Obesity in U.S. Children
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1318-1322 "higher DED[dietary energy density - like soda and french fries] was associated with being African-American. In contrast, lower DED among children 11 y old was associated with being Asian or Hispanic and with total daily consumption of fluid milk. The quality of the diet for young children, as indexed by high DED, may be adversely affected by limited household economic resources. Although food insecurity and WIC enrollment were not associated with DED in this study sample, milk consumption in children 4 y old was associated with lower DED.

[use supplements wisely] Vitamin Intakes from Supplements and Fortified Food in German Children and Adolescents: Results from the DONALD Study
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1329-1333 "...The ubiquitous availability of supplements might indicate that even healthy children and adolescents profit by taking them. However, it is difficult to evaluate whether consumers receive more benefits or risks from the unrestricted consumption of supplements as they are marketed today."

[new food pyramid better than old IF YOU CONTROL CALORIES] The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid Is Associated with More Adequate Nutrient Intakes within Energy Constraints than the 1992 Pyramid J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1341-1346 " ...The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. .."


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