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AJCN May, 2006

[protein beats carbs for dieting] Alternatives to low-fat diets Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 989-990 High-carbohydrate, low-fat diets have been thought to reduce the risk of obesity, cancer, and heart disease, but the benefits of carbohydrates are now disputed because their long-term effects on body weight are disappointing (1) and because they lower HDL cholesterol and raise fasting serum triacylglycerol concentrations (2-4). As a result, low-carbohydrate diets have become popular, especially for weight loss... At constant body weight, the addition of protein at the expense of carbohydrates caused a slight increase in both LDL and HDL cholesterol but a decrease in the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol. This ratio is the most specific lipid risk factor for coronary heart disease, and its decrease suggests an advantage for dietary protein over carbohydrates...

[zinc deficiency or overdose hazardous] Zinc and pneumonia Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 991-992 Recent experience with lower mortality and morbidity due to infectious disease in well-designed, randomized, controlled trials of zinc supplements in young children has highlighted zinc deficiency as a public health problem of global proportions (1). [zinc supplements useful during a cold]

[coffee is great for health] Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women's Health Study Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1039-1046 Background: Coffee is the major source of dietary antioxidants. The association between coffee consumption and risk of death from diseases associated with inflammatory or oxidative stress has not been studied. ..the hazard ratio of death attributed to cardiovascular disease was 0.76 for consumption of 1–3 cups/d, 0.81 for 4–5 cups/d, and 0.87 for 6 cups/d. The hazard ratio for death from other inflammatory diseases was 0.72 for consumption of 1–3 cups/d, 0.67 for 4–5 cups/d, and 0.68 for 6 cups/d. ..Conclusions: Consumption of coffee, a major source of dietary antioxidants, may inhibit inflammation and thereby reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other inflammatory diseases in postmenopausal women.

[Iron supplementation unnecessary even during pregnancy, causes abnormal behavior in children after birth] Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 y of age: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1112-1117 Background: Iron supplements are often prescribed during pregnancy despite the lack of intervention trials that have assessed the effects of supplementation in pregnancy on childhood development. Objective: The objective was to determine whether iron supplementation during pregnancy influences childhood intelligence quotient (IQ) in an industrialized country... However, the percentage of children with an abnormal behavior score was higher in the iron group than in the placebo group ; the relative risk was 1.97. There was no significant difference in the health of the mothers between groups,...Conclusions: Prenatal iron supplementation that reduces the incidence of iron deficiency anemia from 11% to 1% has no effect on the IQ of the offspring at 4 y of age.

[soy beneficial to immune system] Soy isoflavones modulate immune function in healthy postmenopausal women Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1118-1125 Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy isoflavones, both in soymilk and in supplement form, on markers of immunity and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women...Conclusions: Soymilk and supplemental isoflavones modulate B cell populations and appear to be protective against DNA damage in postmenopausal women.

[simple carbs harm eyes] Dietary carbohydrate intake and glycemic index in relation to cortical and nuclear lens opacities in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 1177-1184. Objective: The aim was to test whether recent dietary carbohydrate intakes or glycemic index (GI; a measure of carbohydrate intake quality) was associated with the presence of cortical or nuclear opacities...Conclusions: Results from the cross-sectional analysis of AREDS baseline data suggest that dietary glycemic quality and dietary carbohydrate quantity may be associated with prevalent nuclear and cortical opacities, respectively.




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