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J Nutrition Apr, 2005

Obesity and the Neuroendocrine Control of Energy Homeostasis: The Role of Spontaneous Locomotor Activity Tamara R. Castañeda, et al J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1314-1319.

Figure 2, page 1317, is worth going to a major library to see. This figure indicates why it is so complicated to control our weight and level of physical activity, and why simple diet and activity plans may work for one person and not for another. The figure shows what is know as of May 2005 about hormonal, mental, organ-based, and molecular based signalling interacting with various specific parts of the brain. When trying to determine your weight and physical activity and trying to change your behavior, there are no easy answers, and we each are different. It may be easy for one person, and nearly impossible for the next person.

Nutritional, Dietary and Postprandial Oxidative Stress Helmut Sies, Wilhelm Stahl, and Alex Sevanian  J. Nutr. 2005 135: 969-972

"Low intake or impaired availability of dietary antioxidants including vitamins E and C, carotenoids, polyphenols, and other micronutrients (e.g., selenium) weakens the antioxidant network. Postprandial oxidative stress, as a subform of nutritional oxidative stress, ensues from sustained postprandial hyperlipidemia and/or hyperglycemia and is associated with a higher risk for atherosclerosis, diabetes, and obesity… Lipid hydroperoxides present in the diet are absorbed, contributing to the prooxidant load. In hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic subjects, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in the postprandial state, making postprandial oxidative stress an important factor modulating cardiovascular risk. Postprandial oxidative stress is attenuated when dietary antioxidants are supplied together with a meal rich in oxidized or oxidizable lipids. Ingestion of dietary polyphenols, e.g., from wine, cocoa, or tea, improves endothelial dysfunction and lowers the susceptibility of LDL lipids to oxidation. Polyphenols affect endothelial function not solely as antioxidants but also as modulatory signaling molecules."

[memory/brain function]

Higher Dietary Intake of Lignans Is Associated with Better Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women Oscar H. Franco, et al J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1190-1195.   [Abstract]

"community-based survey among 394 postmenopausalwomen… After adjustment for confounders,increasing dietary lignans intake was associated with betterperformance on the MMSE [cognitive performance test]"

Protein Intake Is Inversely Associated with Abdominal Obesity in a Multi-Ethnic Population Anwar T. Merchant, et al J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1196-1201.   [Abstract]

"among 617 Canadians ofAboriginal, South Asian, Chinese, and European origins,… waist-hip ratio (WHR)…. Energy-adjusted protein substituted for an equivalentamount of carbohydrate was associated with a reduction in WHR… Fat or total energy were not related to WHRin the same linear regression model. Smoking was positivelyand physical activity inversely related to WHR in the multivariatemodel independent of BMI and other potential confounders. Substitutinga modest amount of protein for carbohydrate may reduce abdominalobesity in a diverse multi-ethnic population. Smoking was positivelyrelated to abdominal obesity after accounting for BMI."

Diet and Serum Carotenoid Concentrations Affect Macular Pigment Optical Density in Adults 45 Years and Older Joanne D. Burke, Joanne Curran-Celentano, and Adam J. Wenzel J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1208-1214. [Abstract]

The dietary carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are the principal components of macular pigment (MP). Protection of the central retina by MP is suggested, but data are limited...These findings suggest that carotenoid-rich diets and serum carotenoids positively contribute to MP status.

Functional Foods: Delivering Information to the Oncology Nurse Glen T. Cameron and Mugur V. Geana J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1253-1255.

Recent research suggests a beneficial role of nutrition as possible supportive therapy for cancer patients. ..Findings suggest that oncology nurses who consider nutrition important at a personal level tend to discuss nutrition more with patients and to seek more information about nutrition and cancer. Personal rather than professional motives appear to be triggers for the information search.

Symposium: Innate Immunity and Human Milk

Human Milk Inactivates Pathogens Individually, Additively, and Synergistically Charles E. Isaacs J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1286-1288.

Breast-feeding can reduce the incidence and the severity of gastrointestinal and respiratory infections in the suckling neonate by providing additional protective factors to the infant’s mucosal surfaces...The total antimicrobial protection provided by human milk appears to be far more than can be elucidated by examining protective factors individually.

Probiotics That Modify Disease Risk Seppo J. Salminen, Miguel Gueimonde, and Erika Isolauri J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1294-1298.

"bifidobacteria make up 60 to 90% of the total fecal microbiota in breast-fed infants" "Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans. .. Development of intestinal microbiota is an important factor affecting the health of the newborn. Recent studies suggest that specific bacterial components, especially the bifidobacteria, have a key impact on development of a healthy balanced infant microbiota. .. Most recently, a reduction in risk of atopic diseases followed early administration of specific probiotics."

Human-Milk Glycans That Inhibit Pathogen Binding Protect Breast-feeding Infants against Infectious Diarrhea
J. Nutr. 2005 135: 1304-1307.



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