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AJCN April, 2010 - SUMMARY - See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles further down this page at DETAILS at www.nutritioninvestigator.org.

DIETARY SELECTIONS FOR OPTIMUM HEALTH 1. An effective dietary mixture based on nutrigenomics - Resveratrol, green tea extract, vitamins C and E, fish oil, and tomato extract were included and effective, as shown by large-scale profiling of genes, proteins, and metabolites.

FISH OIL 2. Reasons to take a DHA (fish oil) supplement - The March AJCN provides support for DHA in individuals with diagnosed depressive illness...Associations of plasma EPA and DHA were inverse and linear for triglycerides and positive and linear for HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. 3. Fish oil (DHA) improves attention in healthy boys - So it may reduce development of attention deficit disorder. 4. Infant eyesight improves with fish oil (DHA) - DHA supplementation of infant formula improves visual acuity.

COFFEE 5. Coffee is associated with reduced risk for diabetes - 8 cups help more than 4 which are better than 0. Coffee consumption appears to have beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and HDL cholesterol... 6. Coffee reduces risk of diabetes - People in the highest category of coffee consumption [≥3 cups (375 mL)/d] were 27% less likely to have diabetes.

SOY 7. A f ruit, vegetable, and soy diet reduces the risk of breast cancer - Our findings support the hypothesis that a diet characterized by vegetables, fruit, and soy has an early-acting protective effect on breast carcinogenesis.

VEGETABLES 8. Serving more vegetables is effective for an improved diet - It is an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake at a meal.

ORANGE JUICE 9. Orange juice has benefits - Orange juice intake prevented meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress.

OTHER HIGHLIGHTS: 10. Eat protein to avoid bed-rest muscle loss - Essential amino acids (15 g provided 3 times daily) greatly attenuated the loss of muscle mass in mature people on bed rest...
11. Whey protein (WP) before meals reduces food intake - WP (10–40 g) in 300 mL water consumed before a meal reduces food intake, postmeal blood glucose and insulin...
12. Public health strategies reduce obesity - Community-wide strategies can work with children to reduce obesity.

-Roc, Nutrition Investigator

Science’s biggest mystery is the nature of consciousness. It is not that we possess bad or imperfect theories of human awareness; we simply have no such theories at all. About all we know about consciousness is that it has something to do with the head, rather than the foot.
— Physicist Nick Herbert

AJCN April, 2010 -DETAILS
1. An effective dietary mixture based on nutrigenomics - It was hypothesized that specific dietary components are able to reduce low-grade inflammation as well as metabolic and oxidative stress...Design: Dietary products [resveratrol, green tea extract, vitamin E, vitamin C, n–3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids [fish oil], and tomato extract] selected for their evidence-based antiinflammatory properties were combined...Conclusion: An intervention with selected dietary products affected inflammatory processes, oxidative stress, and metabolism in humans, as shown by large-scale profiling of genes, proteins, and metabolites in plasma, urine, and adipose tissue.

2. Reasons to take a DHA (fish oil) supplement - Two studies concerning supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or an n–3 (omega-3) fatty acid in health and disease appear in this issue of the Journal, and 2 studies on this topic appeared in the March issue of the Journal. One of these studies is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of n–3 LC-PUFAs on depressed mood. The evidence now available provides some support for the use of n–3 LC-PUFAs in individuals with diagnosed depressive illness...Associations of plasma EPA and DHA were inverse and linear for triglycerides and positive and linear for HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The authors concluded that increasing EPA and DHA intakes to amounts well above those consumed by the general US population may have beneficial effects on chronic disease risk. McNamara et al (1) addressed the possibility that DHA concentration in brain gray matter regulates cortical metabolic function and cognitive development. Birch et al (2) address the role of the high concentration of DHA in the brain and retina and the possibility that DHA supplementation may show benefits. The study was conducted at 2 sites. Infants randomly assigned to receive the control formula (0% DHA) had poorer VEP acuity at 12 mo of age than did infants fed any of the DHA-supplemented formulas...

3. Fish oil (DHA) improves attention in healthy boys - Dietary DHA intake and associated elevations in erythrocyte DHA composition are associated with alterations in functional activity in cortical attention networks during sustained attention in healthy boys. This may reduce the development or progression of attention deficit disorder.

4. Infant eyesight improves with fish oil (DHA) - DHA supplementation of infant formula at 0.32% of total fatty acids improves visual acuity.

5. Coffee is associated with a reduced risk for diabetes - Design: Habitual coffee drinkers (n = 47) refrained for 1 mo from coffee drinking; in the second month they consumed 4 cups of filtered coffee/d and in the third month 8 cups of filtered coffee/d (150 mL/cup). The ratios of LDL to HDL cholesterol and of apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A-I decreased significantly by 8% and 9%, respectively (8 compared with 0 cups coffee/d). Conclusions: Coffee consumption appears to have beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and HDL cholesterol...

6. Coffee reduces the risk of diabetes - The hazard ratio in the highest category of coffee consumption [≥3 cups (375 mL)/d] was 0.73.

7. A fruit, vegetable, and soy diet reduces the risk of breast cancer - Our findings support the hypothesis that a diet characterized by vegetables, fruit, and soy has an early-acting protective effect on breast carcinogenesis.

8. Serving more vegetables is effective for improved diet - Serving more vegetables, either by adding more or substituting them for other foods, is an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake at a meal. However, to moderate meal energy intake, vegetables should be low in energy density.

9. Orange juice has benefits - The combination of glucose or water and the high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meal induced oxidative and inflammatory stress and an increase in Toll-like receptors expression and plasma endotoxin concentrations. In contrast, orange juice intake with the HFHC meal prevented meal-induced oxidative and inflammatory stress. Hesperetin and naringenin, 2 major flavonoids that are contained in orange juice, but not ascorbic acid, are able to suppress ROS (free radical) generation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro by >50%.

10. Eat protein to avoid bed-rest muscle loss - Prophylaxis against bedrest-induced atrophy includes nutrition support with an emphasis on high-quality protein. Nutritional supplementation alone may not prevent muscle loss secondary to cachexia, but, in combination with the use of an anabolic agent, it may slow or prevent muscle loss...This group of investigators also showed that a supplement of essential amino acids (15 g provided 3 times daily) greatly attenuated the loss of muscle mass...

11. Whey protein (WP) before meals reduces food intake - WP (10–40 g) in 300 mL water was provided in experiment 1, and WP (5–40 g) and WPH (10 g) in 300 mL water were provided in experiment 2. At 30 min after consumption, the subjects were fed an ad libitum pizza meal...Conclusions: WP consumed before a meal reduces food intake, postmeal blood glucose and insulin...

12. Public health strategies reduce obesity - In children aged 0–5 y with a target group of 12,000 children, a community-wide multisetting, multistrategy intervention in early-childhood settings can reduce childhood obesity and improve young children's diets.

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