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The April, 2009 American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
SUMMARY - Sorry even the summary is long, but there is so much here that is exciting. Read the full stories with links at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln09aprajcn.htm.

NUTRITION RESEARCH STILL NOT FULLY RELIABLE 1. Systematic reviews of nutrition research still need improvement

BONES 2. Proper dose of alcohol builds strong bones - The beneficial association between moderate drinking of alcohol and bone health is consistent across many studies. Writing this from Scotland, one cannot omit a reference to the liquor "uisge beathe" (Gaelic for "water of life," a word that was corrupted to "usky" and then "whisky") 3. Details of drinking to help bone mineral density - hip BMD was greater (3.4–4.5%) in men consuming 1–2 drinks/d ... hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0–8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d

OBESITY 4. Prevalence of US Obesity - In 2005–2006, 52.9% of non-Hispanic black women aged ≥20 y were obese compared with 37.2% of non-Hispanic black men and 32.9% of non-Hispanic white women.
5. Obesity increases risk of death - "waist circumference, not overall weight, is the most important indicator of mortality"[Relative risks among men and women in the highest quintile of waist circumference were 2.05 ]
6. Vigorous exercise overcomes genetic tendency to obesity - ...vigorous exercise may mitigate some of the genetic influence on obesity. .The activities included the following 1) jog or run ≥10 miles/wk (1 mile = 1.6 km), 2) play strenuous racquet sports...
7. Saturated fat consumption does not reduce your appetite, fish and vegetable fat does - When infused into the ileum, ... unsaturated fatty acids increase satiety, whereas ... saturated fatty acids do not.
8. Snacks during TV are one key to becoming obese
9. Vigorous exercise reduces belly fat
10. Children age 7 to 12 with fat tummies have chronic inflammation

WHAT TO EAT 11. One daily sugar-sweetened beverage increases heart disease risk 23%
12. Calcium and magnesium intake reduce diabetes risk
13. Fish and dairy are main sources of vitamin B12 [ for which mainly mature people are deficient]

VITAMIN D 14. Without sun, 2,000 IU of Vitamin D daily may be necessary

daily dose of vitamin D
optimal serum level
2,000 IU
1,000 IU
400 IU
serum levels (nmol/L)
greater than 79
63 ± 25
57 ± 15
34 ± 12

15. 5000 IU vitamin D/day improves bone density of nursing home residents

MOMS AND BABIES 16. Many pregnant teens need supplements to have healthy babies - Fifty-two percent of the subjects had iron deficiency anemia, and 30% had serum vitamin D concentrations <25 nmol/L... Conclusion: Poor micronutrient intake and status increase the risk of small-for-gestational age births in pregnant adolescents.
17. Getting multivitamin/minerals helps baby grow - supplements increased the length of children who consumed them regularly from 3 to 24 mo.

CANCER 18. Eating to reduce breast cancer risk - a low intake of meat/starches and a high intake of legumes is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer
19. Soy reduces prostate cancer risk
20. Oily fish and wine reduce skin cancer risk

DETAILS -
NUTRITION RESEARCH STILL NOT FULLY RELIABLE 1. Systematic reviews of nutrition research still need improvement - Conclusions: The reporting quality of nutrition-related systematic reviews (SRs) has improved 3 y after publication of SR reporting standards, but the reporting of nutrition variables has not. Improved adherence to consensus methods and reporting standards should improve the utility of nutrition SRs.

BONES 2. Proper dose of alcohol builds strong bones - The beneficial association between moderate drinking of alcohol and bone health is consistent across many studies. However, public health guidelines need to be tempered because of the severe problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. ..beer drinking may be beneficial for bone health in men...In the United States, more affluent individuals report higher consumption and 45% of Americans do not drink any alcohol ..men consume predominantly beer, whereas women consume mostly wine. ,,the associations of moderate alcohol drinking and bone health are also seen in early postmenopausal Scottish women, with 1–2 alcoholic drinks/d being associated with less bone loss ...Beer contains silicon (7), small quantities of B vitamins (8), and bioactive polyphenols. Silicon has been reported to be essential for bone growth, and B-complex vitamins (vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate) are known to reduce circulating homocysteine, which has been associated with increased fracture risk. Wine, particularly red wine, contains a range of phytochemicals, many of which could plausibly influence bone metabolism, including resveratrol, which has estrogenic activity...Writing this from Scotland, one cannot omit a reference to the liquor "uisge beathe" (Gaelic for "water of life," a word that was corrupted to "usky" and then "whisky")

3. Details of drinking to help bone mineral density - hip BMD was greater (3.4–4.5%) in men consuming 1–2 drinks/d of total alcohol or beer, whereas hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0–8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d of total alcohol or wine. Intake of >2 drinks/d of liquor in men was associated with significantly lower (3.0–5.2%) hip and spine BMD than was intake of 1–2 drinks/d of liquor in men.

OBESITY 4. Prevalence of US Obesity - In 2005–2006, 52.9% of non-Hispanic black women aged ≥20 y were obese compared with 37.2% of non-Hispanic black men and 32.9% of non-Hispanic white women. Moreover, the highest prevalence of extreme obesity, 13.7%, was found among non-Hispanic black women. This compares with 5.9% among black men and 6.7% among white women ...the increase in obesity prevalence was highest in the high-income group for all race-ethnic groups.

5. Obesity increases risk of death - In 2005 a controversial study by Flegal et al (1) estimated that 26,000 deaths per year in the United States were attributable to excessive body weight, which contrasted strikingly with a previous estimate of 280,000 deaths due to excess body weight ..."waist circumference, not overall weight, is the most important indicator of mortality"[Relative risks among men and women in the highest quintile of waist circumference were 2.05 ]

6. Vigorous exercise overcomes genetic tendency to obesity - Conclusions: Genetic influences on BMI are lower among those who report vigorous exercise. Consistent with an emerging literature, this suggests that vigorous exercise may mitigate some of the genetic influence on obesity. .The activities included the following 1) jog or run ≥10 miles/wk (1 mile = 1.6 km), 2) play strenuous racquet sports (eg, singles tennis, paddle ball) ≥5 h/wk, 3) ride a bicycle ≥50 miles/wk, 4) swim ≥2 miles/wk, or 5) play other strenuous sports (eg, basketball, soccer). Participants who endorsed one or more activities were designated as vigorous exercisers...

7. Saturated fat consumption does not reduce your appetite, fish and vegetable fat does - Background: Ileal delivery of fat reduces hunger and food intake through activation of the ileal brake. Physicochemical properties of fat have been shown to affect satiety and food intake...Conclusions: When infused into the ileum, triacylglycerols with unsaturated fatty acids increase satiety, whereas triacylglycerols with saturated fatty acids does not. [NutInv comment - Protein mechanisms that sense how much we have eaten may have evolved in an era when unsaturated fats were the key to having eaten enough - plants and wild animals have mostly unsaturated fats. Now corn-fed domestic animals are able to store high levels of saturated fat, which do not fit the key to the protein sensing fullness.]

8. Snacks during TV are one key to becoming obese - despite TV viewing being linked to lower physical activity, the relation between TV viewing and fatness is not mediated by physical activity. The results suggest that a relation between TV viewing and fatness is more likely to be due to an effect on food intake.

9. Vigorous exercise reduces belly fat - Conclusion: With a similar amount of total weight loss, lean mass is preserved, but there is not a preferential loss of abdominal fat when either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise is performed during caloric restriction [reduction of 400 Calories/day from normal eating].

10 . Children with fat tummies have chronic inflammation - children aged 7–12 y were assessed for C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (sTNF-R2) in the fasted state and after a mixed meal...Conclusions: Excess adiposity is associated with both fasting and postprandial markers of inflammation (MOI). The postprandial MOI response may be influenced by central adiposity in children.

WHAT TO EAT 11. One daily sugar-sweetened beverage increases heart disease risk 23%- Conclusion: Regular consumption of full-calorie sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with a higher risk of CHD in women, even after other unhealthful lifestyle or dietary factors are accounted for.

Sugared Drinks <1/month 1-4/mo 2-6/wk 1/day 2 or more /day
Relative Risk
1.0
0.96
1.04
1.23
1.35

12. Calcium and magnesium intake reduce diabetes risk - We examined associations between calcium and magnesium intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a Chinese population...Results: An inverse association between calcium and magnesium intakes and T2D risk was observed.

13. Fish and dairy are main sources of vitamin B12 [ for which mainly mature people are deficient] - Conclusions: Dietary intake of dairy products and fish are significant contributors to plasma vitamin B-12 and may improve plasma vitamin B-12 status.

VITAMIN D 14. Without sun, 2,000 IU of Vitamin D daily may be necessary - Recent studies indicate that optimal serum vitamin D should be ≥80 nmol/L. ..Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of 3 doses of vitamin D...[NuInv-Table shows most people without substantial sun exposure would benefit from 2,000 IU daily, possible conveniently by a 2,000 IU daily supplement. ]

daily dose of vitamin D
optimal serum level
2,000 IU
1,000 IU
400 IU
serum levels (nmol/L)
greater than 79
63 ± 25
57 ± 15
34 ± 12

15. 5000 IU vitamin D/day improves bone density of nursing home residents

MOMS AND BABIES 16. Many pregnant teens need supplements to have healthy babies - Results: Median iron and folate intakes were lower than UK and US recommended amounts. Folate and vitamin B-12 status were lower in smokers, despite no differences in dietary intake...Fifty-two percent of the subjects had iron deficiency anemia, and 30% had serum vitamin D concentrations <25 nmol/L.[optimal serum level greater than 79 ]. Conclusion: Poor micronutrient intake and status increase the risk of small-for-gestational age births in pregnant adolescents.

17. Getting multivitamin/minerals helps baby grow - Conclusions: MM supplements increased the length of children who consumed them regularly from 3 to 24 mo. Strategies that promote compliance through effective delivery of micronutrient interventions are needed.

TABLE 1. Nutrient composition of the multiple micronutrient supplement

Nutrient

3–11 mo of age
(per dose, 20 mL)

12–24 mo of age
(per dose, 30 mL)
Vitamin A (µg)
135.0
144.0
Vitamin D (µg)
10.0
10.0
Vitamin E (mg)
2.7
4.0
Vitamin B-6 (mg)
0.6
0.1
Vitamin B-12 (µg)
0.8
1.1
Vitamin C (mg)
52.5
60.0
Niacin (mg)
6.0
9.0
Folic acid (µg)
35.0
50.0
Thiamine (mg)
0.4
0.7
Riboflavin (mg)
0.8
1.2
Iron (mg)
15.0
15.0
Zinc (mg)
7.5
15.0
Magnesium (mg)
60.0
80.0

CANCER 18. Eating to reduce breast cancer risk - Conclusion: Our results suggest that a diet characterized by a low intake of meat/starches and a high intake of legumes is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

19. Soy reduces prostate cancer risk - Conclusions: The results of this analysis suggest that consumption of soy foods is associated with a reduction in prostate cancer risk in men. This protection may be associated with the type and quantity of soy foods consumed.

20. Oily fish and wine reduce skin cancer risk - Background: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant actinic tumors of the skin. ..Conclusion: Moderate intake of oily fish and of wine may decrease the acquisition of AKs and thus complement sun protection measures in the control of actinic skin tumors.

 

 

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