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First, an extra from Science magazine (25 April 2008 pg. 426): In Nat CelBiol 10, 385(2008), it is reported that neural progenitor cells differentiate to neurons in reducing environment, but to astrocytes in oxidizing brain. Thus, taking vitamin C to maintain a reducing environment in the brain is likely to minimize stroke damage and maximize stroke recovery.

AJCN Apr, 2008

SUMMARY - FISH OIL shows its wonder again, aiding birth weight (5) and reducing cancer risk (7). OLIVE OIL may be better than a low fat diet to prevent weight regain after dieting (3).  RED GRAPE JUICE (12) is a great choice for breakfast juice compared to orange juice, but pick a brand without high fructose corn syrup. Plenty of VITAMIN D is important for children's bones.  PLANT STEROLS found especially in corn, soy, wheat, and oils lowers serum cholesterol (9). And eat your greens for VITAMIN K to prevent prostate cancer.

CURED MEATS (10) increase cancer risk, and SMOKING is associated with accumulating fat, rather than controlling weight (2).

Although these are inconsistent with most reports, there is evidence that CHOCOLATE (4) and CHOLINE (6) may not have as much benefit as others have found.  And though many studies have reported EGGS are good for eyesight and brains and do not affect cholesterol, this study (1) showed an egg every day may increase risk of death in older men.

DETAILS - 1. Uncertain eggs - Djoussé and Gaziano (1) have calculated an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.41 for all-cause mortality over a 20-y span in 21 327 Harvard-educated male physicians who ate 1 egg/d. It is important that a pattern of less frequent intake did not influence risk. However, if diabetes was coexistent in these health care professionals, a trend existed across a broader range of egg consumption. The egg intake pattern in this study population was extremely low: only 8% of participants were eating 1 egg/d.

2. Smoking associated with fat accumulation - smoking increases insulin resistance and is associated with central fat accumulation. As a result, smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and these factors increase risk of cardiovascular disease.

3. Olive oil better than low fat diet - performed before and after the 6-mo dietary intervention...A diet high in monounsaturated fat [olive oil] has a more favorable effect on glucose homeostasis than does the typical Western diet in the short term and may also be more beneficial than the official recommended low-fat diet during a period of weight regain subsequent to weight loss.

4. Chocolate benefit not certain - This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

5. Fish oil helps baby birth weight - Low concentrations of individual n–3 fatty acids [fish oil] and 20:3n–6, the precursor of arachidonic acid (20:4n–6), but high concentrations of the other n–6 fatty acids and the main dietary trans fatty acid (18:1n–9t) were associated with lower birth weight

6. Choline benefit not certain - Background: Animal studies indicate that maternal prenatal choline supplementation leads to permanent enhancement of attention and spatial memory abilities in offspring, whereas dietary choline restriction during pregnancy impairs cognitive function in offspring. The association between gestational choline concentrations and neurodevelopmental outcome in humans has not been studied.Conclusion: Gestational and newborn choline concentrations in the physiologic range showed no correlation with childhood intelligence.

7. Omega-3 [fish oil] reduces cancer risk - Background: Epidemiologic studies suggest a reduced risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma in populations with a high consumption of fish, and n–3 fatty acids inhibit experimental carcinogenesis. One possible explanation is the suppression of eicosanoid production through inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2).

8. Vitamin K reduces risk of prostate cancer - Our results suggest an inverse association between the intake of menaquinones, but not that of phylloquinone, and prostate cancer. [phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinones (vitamin K2)]

9. Plant sterols block serum cholesterol - Conclusions:The present study is the second epidemiologic study to show a significant inverse relation between naturally occurring dietary plant sterols [corn, soy, wheat, vegetable oils] and serum cholesterol. To the extent that the associations found truly mirror plant sterol intake and not merely a diet high in vegetable fat and fiber, it highlights the importance of considering the plant sterol content of foods both in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and in the dietary advice incorporated into nutritional treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia.

10. Cured meats hazardous -Most cured meats contain nitrites. Nitrites generate oxidative-nitrative stress and were shown in animal models to cause emphysema... Conclusion:Frequent cured meat consumption was associated with an increased risk of newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among women who smoke.

11. Vitamin D for children's bone strength - Conclusions: Maintaining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations above 50 nmol/L throughout the year may be a cost-effective means of improving bone health. Increased emphasis on exploring strategies for improving vitamin D status in adolescents is needed.

12. Red grape juice is really good for health - Regular ingestion of concentrated RGJ by hemodialysis patients reduces neutrophil NADPH-oxidase activity and plasma concentrations of oxidized LDL and inflammatory biomarkers to a greater extent than does that of vitamin E. This effect of RGJ consumption may favor a reduction in cardiovascular risk.


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