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J Nutrition Apr, 2007

[fishoil essential to developing brain] Dietary (n-3) Fatty Acids and Brain Development "The (n-3) fatty acids are essential dietary nutrients, and one of their important roles is providing docosahexaenoic acid [22:6(n-3)] (DHA) for growth and function of nervous tissue. Reduced DHA is associated with impairments in cognitive and behavioral performance, effects which are particularly important during brain development. "

[US cultural pattern dangerous for health] The Role of Acculturation in Nutrition, Lifestyle, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes among Latinos "Latinos have become the largest ethnic minority group in the U.S. and will become 25% of the population by 2050. The purpose of this critical review is to examine the influence of acculturation on type 2 diabetes and corresponding risk factors, including 1) dietary intake, 2) physical activity patterns, 3) smoking and alcohol consumption, and 4) obesity. Among Latinos, acculturation has been associated with obesity risk, suboptimal dietary choices including lack of breast-feeding, low intake of fruits and vegetables, a higher consumption of fats and artificial drinks containing high levels of refined sugar, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In contrast, acculturation has been positively associated with physical activity and a lower likelihood of type 2 diabetes among Latinos."

A COUPLE OF POINTS WORTH NOTING in the article: "between 1995 and 1999, smoking caused half a million death and $150 billion in annual health-related economic damage... In the year 2000, excessive and risky drinking in the US took 85,000 lives and cost $185 billion in financial damage."

[Even in kids, a high fat meal makes stress more harmful] A High-Fat Meal Increases Cardiovascular Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Healthy Young Adults "The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. ..The findings of the present study are consistent with the hypothesis that even a single high-fat meal may be associated with heightened cardiovascular reactivity..."

[Peptides may be absorbed undigested] Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides from a Lactotripeptide-Enriched Milk Beverage Are Absorbed Intact into the Circulation "In summary, this is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that the tripeptide Ile-Pro-Pro selectively escapes from intestinal degradation and reaches the circulation undegraded."

[Soy reduces risk of prostate cancer] Soy Isoflavones Exert Differential Effects on Androgen Responsive Genes in LNCaP Human Prostate Cancer Cells "The high consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated to a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer."

[Fish oil lowers blood pressure] Low-Dose Docosahexaenoic Acid Lowers Diastolic Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged Men and Women "The intake of (n-3) long-chain PUFA is associated with a decreased risk of fatal myocardial infarction. ..We report a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled trial of 0.7 g DHA/d ...vs. placebo (1.5 g olive oil/d)...Supplementation increased the proportion of DHA in erythrocytes lipids by 58%...The results indicate that a moderate increase in the daily intake of DHA to 0.7 g DHA lowers diastolic BP but does not influence indices of endothelial function or arterial stiffness [which is relieved by vitamin C] in the short term. "

[Novice weight lifters do not need extra protein-though leucine may help ] Resistance Training Reduces Fasted- and Fed-State Leucine Turnover and Increases Dietary Nitrogen Retention in Previously Untrained Young Men "We aimed to determine the impact of intense resistance training, designed to increase lean body mass (LBM), on both fasted and fed whole body protein kinetics in untrained young men. ..The increase in nitrogen balance after training demonstrates a more efficient utilization of dietary nitrogen, suggesting that protein requirements for novice weightlifters are not elevated."

[High fruit-low meat reduces colon cancer risk] A Diet High in Fruits and Low in Meats Reduces the Risk of Colorectal Adenomas "Recent evidence suggests overall dietary patterns, rather than specific dietary components, may be a better predictor of colorectal adenomas or cancers...the high vegetable-moderate meat cluster (odds ratio [OR] 2.17) and high meat cluster (OR 1.70) were at significantly increased odds of having had an adenoma compared with the high fruit-low meat cluster. A high-fruit, low-meat diet appears to be protective against colorectal adenomas compared with a dietary pattern of increased vegetable and meat consumption. [OR means those eating high meat diets were 1.7 times more likely to get cancer]

[Food assistance programs to elderly prevent many medical costs] Participation in Food Assistance Programs Modifies the Relation of Food Insecurity with Weight and Depression in Elders "The positive impact of participation in food assistance programs of reducing or preventing poor outcomes resulting from food insecurity will improve elders' quality of life, save on their healthcare expenses, and help to meet their nutritional needs."

[Fish oil makes infant immune system stronger] Fish Oil Supplementation Modulates Immune Function in Healthy Infants " (n-3) PUFA influence immune function in adults and may also affect immune maturation during development. This randomized trial is, to our knowledge, the first to investigate whether fish oil supplementation in late infancy modifies immune responses. The study was a 2 x 2 intervention in 64 healthy Danish infants, who received cow's milk or infant formula alone or with fish oil (FO) (3.4 ± 1.1 mL/d) from 9 to 12 mo of age. ..this study suggests a faster immune maturation with FO supplementation with no apparent reduction in immune activation. "

[Too much niacin, vitamin B3, impairs learning!] Water Maze Performance in Young Male Long-Evans Rats Is Inversely Affected by Dietary Intakes of Niacin and May Be Linked to Levels of the NAD+ Metabolite cADPR "Niacin is converted in tissues to NAD+, which is required for synthesis of the intracellular calcium signaling molecule cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). cADPR is involved in many aspects of cognitive function, including long-term depression, in the hippocampus, a brain region that regulates spatial learning ability. The objective of this study was to determine whether niacin deficiency and pharmacological nicotinamide supplementation have an effect on spatial learning ability...The niacin-supplemented group [30mg/kg - Daily value for humans is only 0.3mg/kg] showed a small but significant spatial learning impairment relative to controls, and an increase in brain cADPR and NAD+. Changes in neural function related to the NAD+ associated calcium signaling molecule, cADPR, may be the link between diet and behavior."

[Human caloric restriction of limited value] Human Caloric Restriction for Retardation of Aging: Current Approaches and Preliminary Data [must be subscriber to reach online link] Caloric restriction [CR] is the only tested way that has been proven to delay aging in animals, and may work in humans. However, estimates at this symposium indicate that a 48 year old man engaged in 30% CR until normal current life expectancy of 78 would add only 2.8 years of life. Neurological testing of animals who spend their lives on CR indicates that they are continuously hungry, they do not get accustomed to it.

 

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