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AJCN Apr, 2007

[soybeans a prudent choice ] Soybeans or soymilk: does it make a difference for cardiovascular protection? Does it even matter? " The effect of dietary soy on cardiovascular disease risk factors has been a topic of intense scientific and public interest over the past 10 or more years...The American Heart Association published a statement on soy in 2000 in which it was deemed "prudent" to recommend inclusion of soy protein in the diet for cardiovascular disease protection (4)...Of practical importance is that many individuals who choose to include soy in their diet will do so to displace animal protein, which will result in reductions in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol..."

[1,000mg fish oil per day recommended; may reduce Alzheimer's risk] The importance of fish and docosahexaenoic acid in Alzheimer disease "Alzheimer disease is devastating both to the afflicted person and to that person's family...It is estimated that 20–40% of the population now over the age of 85 y may have Alzheimer disease...Fish and fish oil contain 2 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), that may have promise...the brains of Alzheimer disease patients have a lower content of DHA in the gray matter of the frontal lobe and hippocampus than do the brains of persons without Alzheimer disease...A recent report from the Framingham Heart Study showed that persons with plasma phosphatidylcholine DHA in the top quartile of values had a significantly (47%) lower risk of developing all-cause dementia than did those in the bottom quartile (6)... In each of these studies, the n–3 fatty acids retarded the decline in cognition over time. One mechanism for the positive effect could be the antithrombotic and antiinflammatory properties of EPA (9). Moreover, the entrance of DHA into the brain could correct DHA deficiency in membrane phospholipids in the cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer disease (5), and EPA would counter the proinflammatory action of arachidonic acid...because evidence exists that n–3 fatty acids prevent episodes of sudden death, the American Heart Association has already recommended that all adults consume 2 fish meals per week (11). For people who are allergic to fish or who cannot obtain fish, we suggest the consumption of one fish-oil capsule (1000 mg) per day."

[75 min exercise per day to keep weight off] Long-term weight losses associated with prescription of higher physical activity goals. Are higher levels of physical activity protective against weight regain? "High levels of exercise may be necessary for long-term maintenance of weight loss...We aimed to determine in a randomized prospective design whether encouraging 2500 kcal physical activity/wk produced greater 30-mo weight losses than did the standard 1000 kcal physical activity/wk prescription...Conclusions:Although participants in the HPA group sustained the 2500-kcal activity goal during the 18-mo treatment, activity declined once treatment ended, which resulted in no between-group differences in activity or weight loss at 2.5 y. Participants who reported continuing to engage in high levels of exercise maintained a significantly larger weight loss."

[Eating one meal per day okay ] A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults "A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested...when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol...Conclusions:Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. "

[whey beats soy for muscles] Consumption of fluid skim milk promotes greater muscle protein accretion after resistance exercise than does consumption of an isonitrogenous and isoenergetic soy-protein beverage "Conclusions:Milk-based proteins promote muscle protein accretion to a greater extent than do soy-based proteins when consumed after resistance exercise. "

[Magnesium reduces inflammation] Magnesium intake and plasma concentrations of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in women "Conclusion:Magnesium intake from diet is modestly and inversely associated with some but not all markers of systematic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in apparently healthy women."

[fish oil reduces breast cancer risk] Erythrocyte fatty acids and breast cancer risk: a case-control study in Shanghai, China "Conclusion:Our results support a protective effect of n–3 fatty acids on breast cancer risk and provide additional evidence for the importance of evaluating the ratio of fatty acids when evaluating diet and breast cancer risk. "

[Fish oil postpones mental decline] Fish consumption, n–3 fatty acids, and subsequent 5-y cognitive decline in elderly men: the Zutphen Elderly Study "Conclusions: A moderate intake of EPA+DHA may postpone cognitive decline in elderly men."

[Benefits from soy isoflavones] Soy isoflavones lower serum total and LDL cholesterol in humans: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials "Conclusions: Soy isoflavones significantly reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol but did not change HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Soy protein that contained enriched or depleted isoflavones also significantly improved lipid profiles."


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