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J Nutrition April, 2006

[how sugar and fat cause diabetes through oxidative stress on genes] Jamie S. Harmon et al, Regulation of the Insulin Gene by Glucose and Fatty Acids, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 873-876 "...The mechanisms of glucotoxicity, which involve decreased binding activities of PDX-1 and MafA and increased activity of C/EBPß, are mediated by high-glucose–induced generation of oxidative stress..."

[vitamin D blocks breast cancer] JoEllen Welsh et al, Human Mammary Epithelial Cells Express CYP27B1 and Are Growth Inhibited by 25-Hydroxyvitamin D-3, the Major Circulating Form of Vitamin D-3, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 887-892. " 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1,25(OH)2D3], the active form of cholecalciferol, is a negative growth regulator of breast cancer cells. ..These are the first studies to demonstrate that nontransformed human mammary cells express CYP27B1, that they are growth inhibited by physiologically relevant concentrations of 25(OH)D3, and that they provide a biological mechanism linking vitamin D status to breast cancer risk."

[How CLAs from dairy inhibit colon cancer] Jung Han Yoon Park et al, Trans-10,cis-12, Not cis-9,trans-11, Conjugated Linoleic Acid Inhibits G1-S Progression in HT-29 Human Colon Cancer Cells, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 893-898. "These results indicate that t10c12 exerts its growth inhibitory effects in colon cancer cells through the induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. The induction of p21CIP1/WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms by which t10c12 inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 cells."

[dark fruit is great for health AND ARTHRITIS] Bruce E. Mackey et al, Consumption of Bing Sweet Cherries Lowers Circulating Concentrations of Inflammation Markers in Healthy Men and Women, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 981-986 (inflammation markers include C-reactive protein (CRP), nitric oxide (NO), and RANTES. "Results of the present study suggest a selective modulatory effect of sweet cherries on CRP, NO, and RANTES. Such anti-inflammatory effects may be beneficial for the management and prevention of inflammatory diseases." The article reports that in a preliminary human study, cherry consumption relieved symptoms of arthritis.

[general dietary guidelines to avoid inflammatory disease]Benoît Lamarche et al, Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations Influence Lipid and Lipoprotein Responses to Low-Fat and High Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Diets in Healthy Men, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1005-1011. Taken from the introduction, "An increasing number of studies recently investigated the effect of dietary modifications on this inflammatory marker. Reduced CRP concentrations were observed after different weight loss regimens, including rigorous dietary restrictions, the consumption of diets rich in soluble fibers and (n-3) fatty acids, or diets with a low dietary glycemic load. The adoption of a prudent or Mediterranean dietary pattern, both characterized by high intakes of fruits and vegetables, has also been associated with reduced plasma CRP concentrations."

Symposium: Food Fortification in Developing Countries: Over half the world's population in developing countries have deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and zinc.

Symposium: Food Assistance and the Well-Being of Low-Income Families:

[food stamps help] Sonya J. Jones et al, Food Stamp Program Participation Is Associated with Better Academic Learning among School Children, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1077-1080 "This study provides the strongest evidence to date that Food Stamp Program participation plausibly has beneficial effects for children on nonnutritional outcomes, specifically academic learning. The mechanisms for this relationship are not well understood and may be through both dietary intake and stress."

[Unfortunately WIC discourages breast-feeding] Mariana Chilton et al, Has the WIC Incentive to Formula-Feed Led to an Increase in Overweight Children?, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1086-1090. "...there is reason to be concerned that WIC's incentive to formula-feed may have led to an increase in overweight children..."

Symposium: Calcium-Related Chronic Diseases in Ethnic Minorities: Can Dairy Consumption Reduce Health Disparities?

[lactose intolerance mostly psychological] George P. McCabe et al,Lactose Intolerance Symptoms Assessed by Meta-Analysis: A Grain of Truth That Leads to Exaggeration, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1107-1113. "The results indicate that lactose is not a major cause of symptoms for lactose maldigeseters following usual intakes of dairy foods, that is, 1 cup." Graphs indicate those experiences symptoms are less than 1% of people, and those, "Some maldigesters who have experienced symptoms following the consumption of large amounts of milk may become psychologically sensitized to the consumption of any amount of milk."

Symposium: Optimizing Vitamin D Intake for Populations with Special Needs: Barriers to Effective Food Fortification and Supplementation

[limit for vitamin D is probably 20,000 IU/day, and people ought to get 1,000 IU/day] Reinhold Vieth, Critique of the Considerations for Establishing the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for Vitamin D: Critical Need for Revision Upwards, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1117-1122. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D is 50 mcg/d (2000 IU/d). Exposure of skin to sunshine can safely provide an adult with the equivalent of 10,000 IU/d. The author explains that the UL of 2000 IU/d is much too low, and ought to be raised to 20,000 IU/day. Note in other references recently vitamin D has been shown to prevent and destroy cells causing various cancers.

[people over 60 ought to get 4,000 IU vitamin D/day] Robert P. Heaney, Barriers to Optimizing Vitamin D3 Intake for the Elderly, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1123-1125

[doctors should especially counsel those with dark skin to take vitamin D] Robert P. Heaney, Barriers to Optimizing Vitamin D3 Intake for the Elderly, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 1123-1125

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