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Am J Clin Nutr APRIL 2005

Vitamins E and C are safe across a broad range of intakes

[editor's note: an awesome list of authors!] John N Hathcock, Angelo Azzi, Jeffrey Blumberg, Tammy Bray, Annette Dickinson, Balz Frei, Ishwarlal Jialal, Carol S Johnston, Frank J Kelly, Klaus Kraemer, Lester Packer, Sampath Parthasarathy, Helmut Sies, and Maret G Traber

?hus, we conclude from clinical trial evidence that vitamin E supplements appear safe for most adults in amounts 1600 IU (1073 mg RRR--tocopherol or the molar equivalent of its esters) and that vitamin C supplements of 2000 mg/d are safe for most adults.?o:p>

TABLE 1 Recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and tolerable upper intake levels (UL) for vitamins E and C1


Vitamin E 2

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) mg













1 Food and Nutrition Board (12). UL, the highest level of regular daily intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all persons in the general population; RDA, the amount considered to maintain normal nutrition in the general population.

2 The new recommendations for vitamin E are expressed as milligrams of RRR--tocopherol equivalents. Dietary supplements of vitamin E are labeled in terms of international units (IU). One mg of synthetic vitamin E (all-rac--tocopheryl acetate is equivalent to 1 IU vitamin E, but only 0.45 mg RRR--tocopherol. One mg of natural vitamin E (RRR--tocopherol) provides 1.5 IU. For the UL, the Food and Nutrition Board recommended 1000 mg of any -tocopherol form, which is equivalent to 1500 IU RRR-or 100 IU all-rac--tocopherol.

3 Increase by 35 mg for smokers.


Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescents

Bernard Gutin et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 746-750

Results: A higher index for CVF was associated with higher amounts of moderate and vigorous PA; more variance was explained by vigorous than by moderate PA. Lower %BF was associated with higher amounts of vigorous PA but not with the amount of moderate PA.

Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention

Carolyn W Gunther et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 751-756.

?igher intakes of calcium are associated with weight loss, with some showing specificity to fat mass (6-18).

Design: Mean intakes of calcium during the intervention were 742.4 ?} 321.5, 1026.4 ?} 311.3, and 1131.29 ?} 337.2 mg/d for the control, medium-dairy, and high-dairy groups

Conclusion: Increased intake of dairy products does not alter body weight or fat mass in young, healthy women over 1 y.?o:p>


Carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein are equally effective at promoting fat loss and improving blood lipids

Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 762-772

Conclusion: The magnitude of weight loss and the improvements in insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease risk factors did not differ significantly between the 2 diets, and neither diet had any detrimental effects on bone turnover or renal function.


Vitamin C supplementation to prevent premature rupture of the chorioamniotic membranes: a randomized trial

Esther Casanueva et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 859-863

Background: Vitamin C is involved in the synthesis and degradation of collagen and is important for maintenance of the chorioamniotic membranes (PROM).

Conclusion: Daily supplementation with 100 mg vitamin C after 20 wk of gestation effectively lessens the incidence of PROM.


The effect of soy protein and soy isoflavones on calcium metabolism in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover study

Lisa A Spence et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 916-922

Conclusions: The lower urinary calcium seen with the consumption of an isolated soy protein than with that of an isolated milk protein was not associated with improved calcium retention. This finding reinforces the importance of evaluating all aspects of calcium metabolism. Soy isoflavones did not significantly affect calcium metabolism.


Ratio of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids and bone mineral density in older adults: the Rancho Bernardo Study

Lauren A Weiss et al

Am J Clin Nutr 2005 81: 934-938.

Conclusions: A higher ratio of n? to n? fatty acids is associated with lower BMD at the hip in both sexes. These findings suggest that the relative amounts of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids may play a vital role in preserving skeletal integrity in older age.

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