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J Nutrition Mar, 2010 -- SUMMARY - See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles at Nutrition investigator .
EVERYONE - 1. Everyone needs vitamin D supplements - High sun exposure is defined as ~90 min/d, ~35% body exposed. Even these people still need a vitamin D supplement.
PREGNANCY AND CHILDREN
POLICY - 15. Cash and In-Kind Transfers in Poor Rural Communities in Mexico Increase Household Fruit, Vegetable, and Micronutrient Consumption but Also Lead to Excess Energy Consumption
SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
1. Everyone needs vitamin D supplements - High sun exposure is defined as ~90 min/d, ~35% body exposed. To achieve enough vitamin D, we estimate that caucasians with high sun exposure need 1300 IU/d vitamin D supplement intake in the winter and AA individuals with low sun exposure need 2100–3100 IU/d year-round.
2. Poor fetal nutrition contributes to adult chronic disease - Early life nutritional exposures, combined with changes in lifestyle in adult life, can result in increased risk of chronic diseases...Micronutrient deficiencies in utero influence the development of chronic disease risk. This review fills a critical gap in the literature related to the seminal role of micronutrients in early life and extends the discussion on the developmental origins of health and disease beyond birth size and energy and protein deficiency. Figure 1 indicates specific nutrients needed to adequately develop renal, heart, pancreas, and lung function.
3. Probiotics (yogurt) are helpful during pregnancy to prevent allergies - We evaluated the safety of a bacterial dietary supplement for the prevention of atopy in infants. [Atopy is a disease characterized by a tendency to be “hyperallergic”.] Our findings support the safe use of this consortium of organisms during pregnancy and early infancy.
4. Childhood protein intake may affect the timing of puberty - Early puberty onset is associated with hormone-related cancers...A higher total and animal protein intake at 5–6 y was related to an earlier pubertal growth spurt.
5. Symposium on the Early life determinants of Metabolic Syndrome - Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a combination of cardio-metabolic risk determinants, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, and microalbuminuria. The prevalence of MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide, largely as a consequence of the ongoing obesity epidemic. Environmental factors during periods early in development have been shown to influence the susceptibility to develop disease in later life. In particular, there is a wealth of evidence from both epidemiological and animal studies for greater incidence of features of MetS as a result of unbalanced maternal nutrition. ..Maternal obesity or malnutrition during pregnancy increases the risk for metabolic disorders (including obesity) in the offspring. Similarly, early postnatal overnutrition also predisposes offspring to adult obesity.
6. Tea may prevent obesity - Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity...We will critically evaluate the evidence for the prevention of obesity by tea, discuss the relevance of proposed mechanisms in light of tea polyphenol bioavailability, and review the reports concerning the toxic effects of high doses of tea polyphenols and the implication that this has for the potential use of tea for the prevention of obesity. Sales of green tea-based dietary supplements in the US totaled (USD) 5.6 million in 2005, an increase of 94% from 2004 (65). Green tea supplements typically contain 0.4–8 mmol EGCG and recommend dosing of 1–2 capsules up to 3 times/d. These findings suggest that caution should be exercised in the use of green tea-based dietary supplements and that further studies are needed to determine the upper limit of safety...
7. BCAAs may reduce obesity - [read about BCAAs] - In this study, we investigated the effects of the branched-chain amino acid L-isoleucine (Ile) on both obesity and glucose/fat homeostasis in mice that were fed a high-fat (45% energy) diet. Our current data thus suggest that supplementation with Ile might be useful in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.
12. Flavanol intake may lower stroke risk - like tea, wine, chocolate. Meta-analysis shows 3 cups of tea a day reduce stroke risk 21%,
14. Symposium on Benefits of Probiotics - Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is a growing interest in probiotics within the scientific community, with consumers, and in the food industry. The interactions between the gut and intestinal microbiota and between resident and transient microbiota define a new arena in physiology, an understanding of which would shed light on the "cross-talk" between humans and microbes.
15. Cash and In-Kind Transfers in Poor Rural Communities in Mexico Increase Household Fruit, Vegetable, and Micronutrient Consumption but Also Lead to Excess Energy Consumption
"I am conscious, therefore I have free will!" -Roc Ordman