You must read and accept the disclaimer to use this site. Updated when a question is received about this page.

AJCN March, 2009 - SUMMARY - It took more than usual to summarize all of the relevant nutrition news this month.

1. SYMPOSIUM: MATERNAL AND CHILD MENTAL HEALTH
Introduction - in some countries, rates of undernutrition approach 50%...Suggestive evidence for the role of nutrients in maternal and child mental health has come from the reviews of iron, zinc, and omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids highlighted in the following articles.
Zinc - a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems,
Iron - Iron deficiency is the most prevalent single nutrient deficiency in the world (1) and is recognized by the World Health Organization as 1 of the 10 greatest global health risks in existence today (2). Worldwide, 50% of women of reproductive age are iron-deficient, with estimates as high as 80% in pregnant women from developing countries.
Fish oil [DHA] - Observational studies support a direct association between poor n–3 fatty acid status and increased risk of maternal depression and childhood behavioral disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

2. SYMPOSIUM: LEPTIN: WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND BEYOND
Introduction - In 1994 Friedman et al (1) identified the hormone leptin in adipose tissue.
Biological Basis for Obesity - The identification of human mutations that cause obesity requires that we modify the explanation that is often invoked to explain the pathogenesis of obesity: "The obese eat too much and exercise too little."Although this is undoubtedly true, the deeper question is, "Why do the obese eat more and exercise less?"The answer appears to be less about the conscious choices that the obese make and more about their biological makeup.

3. French fries, potato chips may be hazardous - These novel findings seem to indicate that chronic ingestion of acrylamide-containing products induces a proinflammatory state, a risk factor for progression of atherosclerosis.
4. 3 g of cinnamon controls blood glucose
5. Eating nuts does not cause weight gain
6. Green tea catechins aid weight loss and maintenance
7. Green leafy vegetables help your heart
8. Nutrition to control blood pressure - the DASH diet has Blood Pressure effects that are more evident and consistent than individual nutrients.
9. High casein diet aids weight maintenance
10. Vitamin supplement designed for pregnant women
11. Oral testosterone benefits hospitalized elderly

DETAILS -
1. SYMPOSIUM: MATERNAL AND CHILD MENTAL HEALTH (Table of contents at end of index)
Introduction - The World Health Organization estimates that malnutrition and mental health problems are principal sources of disability throughout the world, particularly among women and children (1). Worldwide, more than half of all child deaths are related to undernutrition, and, in some countries, rates of undernutrition approach 50%...Suggestive evidence for the role of nutrients in maternal and child mental health has come from the reviews of iron, zinc, and omega-3 (n–3) fatty acids highlighted in the following articles. Many of these nutrients affect the synthesis and function of dopamine and serotonin...Nutritional deficiencies may be particularly important during times of rapid growth and development, including the perinatal period and early childhood...Psychosocial approaches that provide support have been effective in reducing maternal depressive symptoms (18–20), but little attention has been directed toward the mental health implications of nutritional interventions, and there are no tested approaches that can be applied at scale.
Zinc - The purpose of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between zinc and mental health disorders with a focus on 2 mental health problems that commonly affect women and children: depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ..Relations between zinc concentrations and behavior in animals; the relation between zinc deficiency, depression, and ADHD in patient and community samples; and the potential biological mechanisms for these relations were explored. The data support a relation between low concentrations of zinc and mental health problems,
Iron -Conclusion: These data indicate that maternal iron deficiency negatively affects mother-child interactions and that iron supplementation protects against these negative effects. [from the Introduction: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent single nutrient deficiency in the world (1) and is recognized by the World Health Organization as 1 of the 10 greatest global health risks in existence today (2). Anemia affects the lives of >2 billion people worldwide and twice as many are iron-deficient (2). Worldwide, 50% of women of reproductive age are iron-deficient, with estimates as high as 80% in pregnant women from developing countries. ]
Fish oil [DHA] - Mental health problems in women and children represent a significant public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. The role of nutrition as a cost-effective approach in the prevention and management of these conditions has received recent attention, particularly nutrients such as iron, zinc, and n–3 (omega-3) fatty acids, which play a role in brain structure and function. The objective of this article was to review current evidence on the relation between n–3 fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and maternal and child mental health disorders. .. A summary of the role of DHA in the human brain is followed by a review of human studies, both observational and intervention trials, that examine the relation between n–3 fatty acids such as DHA and depression and child mental health disorders. Observational studies support a direct association between poor n–3 fatty acid status and increased risk of maternal depression and childhood behavioral disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). .. Little is known about the benefits of DHA in the prevention of maternal depression and ADHD. Large, well-designed, community-based prevention trials are needed.

2. SYMPOSIUM: LEPTIN: WEIGHT MANAGEMENT AND BEYOND (Table of contents at end of index)
Introduction - In 1994 Friedman et al (1) identified the hormone leptin in adipose tissue. This seminal discovery triggered the novel concept that adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ and established the active role of the adipocyte in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. Friedman et al (2) further established that leptin deficiency is the cause of obesity in a classical rodent model of severe obesity, the obese (ob/ob) mouse, and that treatment of affected mice with recombinant leptin diminished excessive food intake, ameliorated obesity, and corrected the other metabolic abnormalities associated with the genetic defect.
Biological Basis for Obesity - The identification of human mutations that cause obesity requires that we modify the explanation that is often invoked to explain the pathogenesis of obesity: "The obese eat too much and exercise too little."Although this is undoubtedly true, the deeper question is, "Why do the obese eat more and exercise less?"The answer appears to be less about the conscious choices that the obese make and more about their biological makeup. The identification of leptin and other components in a physiologic system that maintains energy balance has established that feeding is at its core a basic biological drive analogous to thirst, breathing, and reproduction (65). Although one can consciously override a basic drive over the short term, over time the basic drive to eat dominates.

3. French fries, potato chips may be hazardous - Background: Relatively high concentrations of acrylamide in commonly ingested food products, such as French fries, potato chips, or cereals, may constitute a potential risk to human health...Conclusion: These novel findings seem to indicate that chronic ingestion of acrylamide-containing products induces a proinflammatory state, a risk factor for progression of atherosclerosis.

4. 3 g of cinnamon controls blood glucose - Conclusions: Ingestion of 3 g cinnamon reduced postprandial serum insulin and increased GLP-1 concentrations without significantly affecting blood glucose, GIP, the ghrelin concentration, satiety, or GER in healthy subjects. The results indicate a relation between the amount of cinnamon consumed and the decrease in insulin concentration.

5. Eating nuts does not cause weight gain - Background: Epidemiologic and clinical data indicate that nuts can be incorporated into the diet without compromising body weight. This has been attributed to strong satiety properties, increased resting energy expenditure, and limited lipid bioaccessibility.

6. Green tea catechins aid weight loss and maintenance - Background: Green tea (epigallocatechin gallate + caffeine) and protein each were shown to improve body weight maintenance after weight loss...Conclusion: The green tea–caffeine mixture, as well as the high-protein diet, improved weight maintenance independently through thermogenesis, fat oxidation, sparing fat-free mass, and, for the high-protein diet, satiety; a possible synergistic effect failed to appear.

7. Green leafy vegetables help your heart - Background: Higher intakes of fruit, vegetables, and dark fish may prevent sudden cardiac death and arrhythmias, but the exact mechanisms are not fully understood...Conclusion: These findings suggest that higher intake of green leafy vegetables may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease through favorable changes in cardiac autonomic function.

8. Nutrition to control blood pressure - Observational studies have shown the relation between blood pressure (BP) and several nutrients, including protein, fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium. However, randomized intervention trials of individual nutrient supplements often have shown an inconsistent or only a small effect on BP. When ≥2 of these nutrients are consumed naturally together in foods at the recommended levels such as in vegetarian diets or in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, their BP effects are more evident and consistent (Lin, PH, Batch, B & Svetkey, LP. Nutrition, lifestyle and hypertension. In: , Coulston, A & Boushey, C, eds. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2008).

9. High casein diet aids weight maintenance - Background: An increase in the protein content of a diet results in an increase in satiety and energy expenditure. It is not clear to what extent a specific type of protein has such effects...Conclusion: A diet where casein provides 25% vs. 10% of energy boosts energy expenditure, protein balance, satiety, and negative fat balance, which is beneficial to body weight management.

10. Vitamin supplement designed for pregnant women -

Morning tablet Evening tablet
β-Carotene (2700 IU) Folic acid-1.1 mg (if PregVit); 5 mg (if PregVit-folic 5)
Vitamin E (30 IU) Vitamin B-12 (12 µg)
Vitamin C (120 mg) Vitamin D (250 IU)
Thiamine (3 mg) Calcium (300 mg)
Riboflavin (3.4 mg)  
Niacinamide (20 mg)
 
Vitamin B-6 (10 mg)  
Pantothenic acid (5 mg)  
Magnesium (50 mg)  
Iodine (0.15 mg)  
Iron as ferrous fumarate (35 mg)  
Copper (2 mg)  
Zinc (15 mg)  

1 PregVit, prenatal multivitamin containing 1.1 mg folic acid; PregVit-folic 5, prenatal multivitamin containing 5 mg folic acid (both manufactured by Duchesnay Inc, Laval, PQ, Canada).

11. Oral testosterone benefits hospitalized elderly - Background: In older people, undernutrition is associated with increased hospitalization rates and mortality. Because weight loss in older people often reflects a disproportionate reduction of skeletal muscle, anabolic treatments may be beneficial...Design: Oral testosterone undecanoate (40 mg daily for women, 80 mg twice daily for men) and an oral nutritional supplement (475 kcal/d) were administered, alone or combined, for 1 y to 49 community-dwelling, undernourished people [Mini Nutritional Assessment score <24 and low body weight (body mass index, in kg/m2: <22) or recent weight loss (>7.5% over 3 mo)] aged >65 y (mean age: 77 y; 26 women and 23 men)...Conclusions: In undernourished older people, combined treatment with testosterone and nutritional supplementation reduced the number of people hospitalized and the duration of hospital admissions, which are important endpoints in this group. Larger, confirmatory studies are now needed.

 

 

 



You must read and accept the disclaimer to use this site.