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J Nutrition March, 2006

[good fats take effect in 12 days] Joanne E. McKenzie et al Dietary-Induced Changes in Fatty Acid Composition of Human Plasma, Platelet, and Erythrocyte Lipids Follow a Similar Time Course

The dietary-induced changes in the fatty acid composition of plasma, platelet, and erythrocyte lipids were measured as a function of time...The maximum increase in linoleic acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine was 3.8 mol% at d 12;...These results provide convincing, albeit indirect evidence that the exchange of fatty acids from plasma to erythrocytes and platelets is a major determinant of their membrane fatty acid composition.

[Atkin's diet may be dangerous] Yoshiyuki Kimura et al, Chronic Intake of High-Fat and High-Sucrose Diets Differentially Affects Glucose Intolerance in Mice

Intakes of some macronutrients can comprise risk factors for life-style-related diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and atherosclerosis...Mice fed the high-fat (HF) diet gained weight and developed hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia... Those fed the HS diet were not obese and had greater hepatic lipogenic and gluconeogenic enzyme activities. ..

[egg yolk good for eyes; some people absorb more cholesterol from food] Maria Luz Fernandez et al, Hypo- and Hyperresponse to Egg Cholesterol Predicts Plasma Lutein and ß-Carotene Concentrations in Men and Women

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the plasma response to dietary cholesterol from eggs is associated with the plasma carotenoid response and whether gender influences the carotenoid response. ..We conclude that plasma responses to cholesterol and carotenoids are related and that gender influences the ß-carotene response to a greater degree than the lutein response.

[how virgin olive oil prevents cancer] Guido Morozzi et al, Virgin Olive Oil Phenols Inhibit Proliferation of Human Promyelocytic Leukemia Cells (HL60) by Inducing Apoptosis and Differentiation

Although epidemiologic evidence and animal studies suggest that olive oil may prevent the onset of cancer, the components responsible for such an effect and their mechanisms of action remain largely unknown... These results support the hypothesis that polyphenols play a critical role in the anticancer activity of olive oil.

[inflammation and irritable bowels] Dirk Haller et al, Functional Diversity of Flavonoids in the Inhibition of the Proinflammatory NF-B, IRF, and Akt Signaling Pathways in Murine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

The molecular understanding of nutritional factors in the process of host factor–mediated activation of the intestinal epithelium may play an important role in the assessment of adjunct nutritional therapy for chronic intestinal inflammation. We characterized the molecular mechanisms of flavonoids ...In conclusion, we provide molecular evidence for the presence of characteristic inhibition patterns of these polyphenolic compounds to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in [intestine cells] through the specific modulation of the NF-B, IRF and Akt signaling pathways... "Dietary flavonoids, which comprise the most comon group of plan polyphenols particularly abundant in fruits and vegetables, were shown to dmediate anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects in various cell types."

[inflammation and irritable bowels] Olga Martínez-Augustin et al, Goat Milk Oligosaccharides Are Anti-Inflammatory in Rats with Hapten-Induced Colitis

Oligosaccharides are included among the anti-inflammatory components of milk because of their prebiotic properties and their capacity to act as receptors of microorganisms. ..Thus, goat milk oligosaccharides have anti-inflammatory effects in rats with experimental colitis and may be useful in the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

[aged garlic extract provides benefits without odor component] Supplement: Significance of Garlic and Its Constituents in Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease

Richard S. Rivlin, Is Garlic Alternative Medicine?

Scientists from around the world have identified a number of bioactive substances in garlic that are water soluble (e.g., S-allyl methylcysteine), and fat soluble (e.g., diallyldisulfide)...Preventive and therapeutic trials of garlic are still in early stages...The current state of knowledge does not recognize garlic as a true alternative, but it will likely find a place for garlic as a complement to established methods of disease prevention and treatment. Our goal should be to examine garlic together with other agents to evaluate its possible efficacy and toxicity under conditions of actual use in humans.

Harunobu Amagase, Clarifying the Real Bioactive Constituents of Garlic

Compounds in garlic work synergistically to produce various effects, but, because of garlic's chemical complexity, processing methods yield preparations with differing efficacy and safety. ..it is not necessary for garlic preparations to contain such odorous compounds to be effective...Garlic exhibits hypolipidemic, antiplatelet, and procirculatory effects. It prevents cold and flu symptoms through immune enhancement and demonstrates anticancer and chemopreventive activities. In addition, aged garlic extract possesses hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antioxidative activities, whereas other preparations may stimulate oxidation...

Herb Sales($1,000) %change Share(%)
Multiherbs
52,116
28.7
14.2
Garlic
27,038
-13.8
10.5
Echinacea
23,785
-17.9
9.2
Saw Palmetto
20,336
-14.2
7.9
Ginkgo biloba
19,336
-16.3
7.5
Soy
17,437
-24.8
6.8
Cranberry
13,490
3.7
5.2
Ginseng
12,166
-12.8
4.7
Total
257,747
-9.7
100

[Article discusses analysis of 4 garlic products - garlic essential oil, garlic oil macerate oil, and aged garlic extract (AGE). Only AGE has"well-established safety," has been heavily researched, is standardized in contents, and appears to have various beneficial effects.

Makoto Ichikawa et al, Tetrahydro-ß-Carboline Derivatives in Aged Garlic Extract Show Antioxidant Properties

This study used the hydroden peroxide scavenging assay to investigate antioxidant chemical constituents derived and separated from aged garlic extract, a unique garlic extract produced by soaking sliced garlic in an aqueous ethanol solution for >10 mo...These data suggest that THßCs, which are formed during the natural aging process, are potent antioxidants in aged garlic extract and thus may be useful for the prevention of diseases associated with oxidative damage.

Burt H. Kroes, European Perspective on Garlic and Its Regulation

In the United Kingdom, garlic is approved for the symptomatic treatment of coughs, colds, sinus congestion, and hay fever. In Sweden, it is traditionally used to ameliorate symptoms of the common cold. In Gerrmany, it is approved for prophylaxis of arteriosclerosis.

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