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J Nutrition Feb, 2010 -- SUMMARY - See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles at Nutrition investigator .

BONUS: Watching 4 hours of TV per day for 7 increases risk of death from heart attack by 46%, 2 hours by 13%.

1. How much of antioxidants the average person eats - The importance of antioxidants in reducing risks of chronic diseases has been well established. Here is what the average American consumes. (how much might be beneficial?)GOOD THINGS TO CONSUME

GOOD THINGS TO EAT 2.Hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure
3. Folate deficiency may contribute to depression
4. Fish consumption reduces colon cancer risk
5. Sesame seeds reduce inflammation - Lots of chronic disease is caused by inflammation, like arthritis.
6. Whey protein stimulates innate immunity
7. Probioceuticals next development - Probiotics are broadly defined as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms (usually bacteria) which, when administered in sufficient numbers, exert a positive influence on host health. Secreted probiotic factors have been reported to inhibit adhesion and viability of known enteric pathogens, suggesting that probiotic supernatants could be a rich source of new antipathogenic compounds.

BUT TOO MANY SNACKS 8. Average person today eats one more snack daily than in 1977

GOVERNMENT POLICY AND NUTRITION
9. The Oriente study is the basis for much of US Foreign Aid for nutrition
10. A good diet the first two years of a child's life is necessary for school success
11. Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease

SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
1. How much of antioxidants the average person eats - The importance of antioxidants in reducing risks of chronic diseases has been well established; however, antioxidant intakes by a free-living population have not yet been estimated adequately. Daily total antioxidant intake was 208 mg vitamin C (46 and 54% from diets and supplements, respectively), 20 mg vitamin E (36 and 64), 223 µg vitamin A (86 and 14), 122 µg selenium (89 and 11), and 210 mg flavonoids (98 and 2). Antioxidant intakes differed among sociodemographic subgroups and lifestyle behaviors. Energy-adjusted dietary antioxidant intakes were higher in women, older adults, Caucasians, nonconsumers of alcohol (only for vitamin C and carotenes), nonsmokers (only for vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenes), and in those with a higher income and exercise level (except for flavonoids) than in their counterparts. (how much might be beneficial?)

2.Hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure - In vitro studies show Hibiscus sabdariffa L., an ingredient found in many herbal tea blends and other beverages, has antioxidant properties, and, in animal models, extracts of its calyces have demonstrated hypocholesterolemic and antihypertensive properties. These results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions.

3. Folate deficiency may contribute to depression - Folate deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of unipolar depression. Depressive symptoms in our study may be alleviated by improving overall dietary quality, with plasma folate playing a potential mediating role only among men.

4. Fish consumption reduces colon cancer risk

5. Sesame seeds reduce inflammation - Lots of chronic disease is caused by inflammation, like arthritis.

6. Whey protein stimulates innate immunity - Innate immunity depends on the efficiency of neutrophils to be activated rapidly to restore homeostasis. It can benefit from priming agents that enhance neutrophil capacity to respond more efficiently to a subsequent stimulation. Among natural products, a bovine whey protein extract (WPE) has been shown to prime normal human blood neutrophils by enhancing their chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and degranulation. These leukocytes are also an important source of cytokines, some of which have antiinflammatory functions.

7. Probioceuticals next development - Probiotics are broadly defined as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms (usually bacteria) which, when administered in sufficient numbers, exert a positive influence on host health. Mechanisms of probiotic action described to date include adhesion to the intestinal-lumen interface; competition with pathogens for nutrients, receptor binding, and colonization; enhancement of mucosal barrier function; promotion of innate and adaptive immune responses; ...Secreted probiotic factors, such as reuterin from Lactobacillus reuteri, have been reported to inhibit adhesion and viability of known enteric pathogens, suggesting that probiotic supernatants could be a rich source of new antipathogenic compounds. In an in vitro study in human gastric epithelial cells, spent culture supernatants from certain lactic acid producing bacteria inhibited the growth and attachment of Helicobacter pylori (that causes ulcers).

8. Average person today eats one more snack daily than in 1977 - the contribution of snacks to total energy intake increased from 18 to 24% (P < 0.01). The energy density of snacks (food plus beverages) also increased progressively over the time period studied.

9. The Oriente study is the basis for much of US Foreign Aid for nutrition - It concludes that the study contributed most of the research evidence supporting the change in policy adopted by the U.S. government in 2009, which encourages the targeting of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs to pregnant mothers and children under 2 y of age...The results show a direct link between improved nutrition in early childhood and persistent benefits in adult physical status, schooling, cognitive skills, and economic productivity.

10. A good diet the first two years of a child's life is necessary for school success - Schooling predicts better reproductive outcomes, better long-term health, and increased lifetime earnings. We used data from 5 cohorts (Brazil, Guatemala, India, the Philippines, and South Africa) to explore the relative importance of birthweight and postnatal weight gain for schooling...In conclusion, weight gain during the first 2 y of life had the strongest associations with schooling followed by birthweight; weight gain between 2 and 4 y had little relationship to schooling.

11. Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease - Food insecurity refers to the inability to afford enough food for an active, healthy life. Numerous studies have shown associations between food insecurity and adverse health outcomes among children. ..These data show that food insecurity is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Health policy discussions should focus increased attention on ability to afford high-quality foods for adults with or at risk for chronic disease.

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