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J Nutrition Feb, 2007

[Food stamps are not enough to prevent food insecurity in the US] Measuring the Effect of Food Stamps on Food Insecurity and Hunger: Research and Policy Considerations J. Nutr. 2007 137: 307-310 " The federal government has estimated the prevalence of household "food insecurity" and "food insecurity with hunger" since 1995. Early observers believed that the new measure could be used to assess and improve the Food Stamp Program (FSP). Ten years of research have tempered the initial optimism. The prevalence of food insecurity with hunger (12.3% of all low-income households in 2004) is much higher among food stamp participant households (18.6% in 2004) than among low-income nonparticipant households (10.1% in 2004), due to strong self-selection effects. "

[SAMe fights obesity and diabetes] S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine Increases Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial DNA Density and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity in OLETF Rats J. Nutr. 2007 137: 339-344 [] " Both mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are implicated in type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance...SAM treatment increased mtDNA density in the skeletal muscle, improved whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented body weight gain in OLETF rats."

[Whey protein supplement builds muscle] Feeding Meals Containing Soy or Whey Protein after Exercise Stimulates Protein Synthesis and Translation Initiation in the Skeletal Muscle of Male Rats J. Nutr. 2007 137: 357-362 [] " The purpose of this investigation was to compare the early response of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and translation initiation following the ingestion of different protein sources after endurance exercise. Treadmill-acclimated rats were designated as either nonexercised controls (NEX) or treadmill exercised for 2 h at 26 m/min (75% VO2max) and then fed either carbohydrate only (EC), carbohydrate plus soy protein (ES), or carbohydrate plus whey protein (EW)...Serum concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in ES and EW were higher than in EC, but serum leucine and isoleucine in EW were higher than in ES ...the data suggest that mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle is acutely responsive to physiological variations in dietary amino acids."

[It's not too harmful to eat some lean red meat] Increased Lean Red Meat Intake Does Not Elevate Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Humans J. Nutr. 2007 137: 363-367 [] " Red meat intake has been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causally related to unprocessed lean red meat...about 200 g/d of lean red meat ...Our results suggest that partial replacement of dietary carbohydrate with protein from lean red meat does not elevate oxidative stress or inflammation."

[Lipoic acid reduces risk of diabetic neuropathy] At Low Doses, a -Linolenic Acid-Lipoic Acid Conjugate Is More Effective Than Docosahexaenoic Acid-Enriched Phospholipids in Preventing Neuropathy in Diabetic Rats J. Nutr. 2007 137: 368-372 [] " A deficiency in essential fatty acid metabolism has been reported in diabetes. Nutritional supplementations with (n-6) or (n-3) PUFA have differential efficiency on parameters of diabetic neuropathy, including nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and nerve blood flow (NBF). The aim of this study was to compare the neuroprotective effects of -linolenic acid (GLA)-lipoic acid (LA) conjugate (GLA-LA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched phospholipids (PL) supplementations on NCV and NBF...We conclude that at the low doses used, supplementation with GLA-LA is more effective than supplementation with DHA in preventing experimental diabetic neuropathy. The difference could be due in part to an antioxidant protective effect of LA on GLA."

[Many elderly need vitamin B-12] Very Low Oral Doses of Vitamin B-12 Increase Serum Concentrations in Elderly Subjects with Food-Bound Vitamin B-12 Malabsorption J. Nutr. 2007 137: 373-378 [] " The BOSSANOVA study, a randomized double-blind trial, was designed to test the ability of very low oral doses of vitamin B-12 to increase the serum vitamin B-12 concentration in elderly subjects with food-bound vitamin B-12 malabsorption, and to determine whether there was a dose response. ..We concluded that very low oral doses of vitamin B-12 increased serum vitamin B-12 concentrations in elderly subjects with subclinical vitamin B-12 deficiency, following a log-dose pattern. Our results could be beneficial in the design of a public health program for safe flour cofortification with folic acid."

[Vitamins to reduce heart disease] Intake of Fish Oil, Oleic Acid, Folic Acid, and Vitamins B-6 and E for 1 Year Decreases Plasma C-Reactive Protein and Reduces Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Male Patients in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program J. Nutr. 2007 137: 384-390 [] " Certain nutrients have been shown to be effective in preventing coronary heart disease. We hypothesized that a daily intake of low amounts of a number of these nutrients would exert beneficial effects on risk factors and clinical variables in patients that suffered from myocardial infarction (MI) and were following a cardiac rehabilitation program. Forty male MI patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. The supplemented group consumed 500 mL/d of a fortified dairy product containing eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, oleic acid, folic acid, and vitamins A, B-6, D, and E...Therapeutic lifestyle changes, effected through a CR program comprising regular exercise and the intake of a combination of dietary nutrients, reduced a variety of risk factors in MI patients, which supports the rationale for nutritional programs in the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. "

[Nondietary behavior matters too] Adherence to the Polyp Prevention Trial Dietary Intervention Is Associated with a Behavioral Pattern of Adherence to Nondietary Trial Requirements and General Health Recommendations J. Nutr. 2007 137: 391-398. [] " This study investigated the factors associated with success in meeting the dietary goals of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT), a 4-y low-fat, high-fiber, high-fruit/vegetable dietary intervention. The PPT provided a rare opportunity to assess factors in long-term adherence to a dietary pattern that required changes to multiple aspects rather than a single aspect of diet. Demographics, health indicators, and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and annually for 4 y of follow-up. Participants (n = 833) received dietary and behavioral counseling to support adherence to trial dietary goals. We assessed the association of baseline variables and trial participation with success in meeting dietary goals. Participant adherence to the intervention goals was significantly associated with never smoking, no history of weight gain, and consumption of less fat and more fiber, fruits, and vegetables at trial baseline. Successful participants were also more educated and married, whereas those with the poorest adherence were older. In addition, successful participants demonstrated greater participation throughout the trial, including attendance at counseling sessions, completion of dietary records, and contacts with staff. Of particular interest were the behavioral and demographic characteristics that distinguished the subset of participants who achieved most or all dietary intervention goals across all 4 study years who we termed Super Compliers. These individuals also were more likely to adhere to social norms for healthy lifestyles and demonstrated greater adherence to other aspects of trial participation."

[Make the right choices for your children] Dietary Patterns in Adolescence Are Related to Adiposity in Young Adulthood in Black and White Females J. Nutr. 2007 137: 399-406 [] "We examined dietary patterns in relation to nutrient intakes and adiposity in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study cohort of 2371 black and white girls recruited at 9–10 y of age and followed for 10 y...A Healthy pattern, followed by 12% of white girls and characterized by a high intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy, grains without added fats, mixed dishes and soups, and a low intake of sweetened drinks, other sweets, fried foods, burgers, and pizza, was related to more favorable nutrient intakes and a smaller increase in waist circumference..."

[only about 1 in 10 elderly need more iron] Poor Iron Status Is More Prevalent in Hispanic Than in Non-Hispanic White Older Adults in Massachusetts J. Nutr. 2007 137: 414-420 [] "The aim of this study was to evaluate iron status and describe dietary components and correlates of iron status in Hispanic older adults and in a neighborhood-based comparison group of non-Hispanic white older adults...higher prevalence of anemia (11.5 vs. 7.3%)..."

[Most multivitamins have insufficient vitamin D] High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Black and White Pregnant Women Residing in the Northern United States and Their Neonates J. Nutr. 2007 137: 447-452 [] "Over 90% of women used prenatal vitamins. ..At delivery, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency occurred in 29.2% and 54.1% of black women and 45.6% and 46.8% black neonates, respectively. Five percent and 42.1% of white women and 9.7% and 56.4% of white neonates were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, respectively.Results were similar at <22 wk gestation... These results suggest that black and white pregnant women and neonates residing in the northern US are at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency, even when mothers are compliant with prenatal vitamins. Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture. "

[Sweetened food contributes to poor nutrition ]Added Sugars Displaced the Use of Vital Nutrients in the National Food Stamp Program SurveyJ. Nutr. 2007 137: 453-460 [] " Recent increases in consumption of added sugars in the US can reduce intake of vital nutrients and increase the overall energy intakes...Overall, the results indicated that added sugars should be discouraged in dietary guidelines, because their adverse effects on diet quality were evident in this low-income population."

[Developing useful dietary guidelines]An Evidence-Based Approach for Establishing Dietary Guidelines J. Nutr. 2007 137: 480-483[] " Although all agree that diet is important to health, for Americans, compliance with dietary guidelines is poor. ..The research base for the guidelines needs to be expanded to include studies of barriers to compliance as well as randomized controlled trials of whole diets. "

[US suffers from lack of breastfeeding ] Evidence Based Breast-Feeding Promotion: The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative J. Nutr. 2007 137: 484-487 [] " The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is the translational tool developed by WHO and UNICEF to promote breast-feeding (BF) in maternity wards worldwide. BFHI was officially launched in the 1980s based on a "common sense" approach...Randomized controlled trials conducted in the Americas, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa indicate that peer counseling is a very efficacious tool for increasing EBF rates."

[Obesity epidemic can be stopped] Public Health Response to the Obesity Epidemic: Too Soon or Too Late? J. Nutr. 2007 137: 488-492 [] "General lessons learned from the AIDS and tobacco epidemics as well as others can be useful now as we contemplate options for reversing the ongoing epidemic of obesity in the United States. "

[Claims on food packaging less reliable] FDA's Review of Scientific Evidence for Health Claims J. Nutr. 2007 137: 493-494 [] "Under interim guidance and enforcement discretion, certain qualified health claims have been provided for on foods and dietary supplements; these claims contain language to qualify the quality and strength of scientific evidence to support the claim because they are not based on significant scientific agreement, which is the standard for health claims authorized by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act..."

[Infants require breast milk-not formula-for good health] Progress in Promoting Breast-Feeding, Combating Malnutrition, and Composition and Use of Infant Formula, 1981–2006 J. Nutr. 2007 137: 499S-502S [] " More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. Considerable progress has also been made in combating infant malnutrition. In 1980, 47% of under-5-y-old children in developing countries were stunted. This percentage declined to 29% in 2005. .."

[Give babies food rich in iron and zinc] Food Choices to Meet Nutritional Needs of Breast-fed Infants and Toddlers on Mixed Diets J. Nutr. 2007 137: 511S-517S [] " The World Health Organization recommends initiation of complementary feeding to breast-fed infants at 6 mo of age. Whether complementary foods will meet nutrient needs will depend on the types of food selected. One criterion for the selection of complementary foods is that they be rich sources of zinc and iron because both of these essential micronutrients are critical for normal growth and development, and requirements are not met by exclusive breast-feeding after 6 mo. For an exclusively breast-fed 7-mo-old infant, human milk provides 0.5 mg of zinc, and a little over half of that is absorbed. Adding some cereal can increase zinc intake modestly but will fall short of providing the estimated physiologic requirement because adaptive mechanisms are inadequate to compensate for moderately low zinc intake. Maize, wheat, rice, and roots are also relatively low in zinc and have the added factor of a high phytate-to-zinc molar ratio, which makes the zinc less bioavailable. Meats and liver have greater zinc and iron concentrations than unfortified plant foods and have been shown to have good acceptance by 7-mo-old infants. In contrast to current practices in both developed and developing countries, meats should be considered as an early complementary food for breast-fed infants to provide essential micronutrients."

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