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AJCN Feb, 2007

[vitamins B-6 and B-12 reduce dementia and cognitive impairment ] Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the risk of dementia Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 329-330 [] "The "homocysteine hypothesis" of Alzheimer disease was prompted by the observation in a case-control study that patients with Alzheimer disease had significantly higher serum concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid previously linked to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...persons with elevated serum homocysteine concentrations have a significantly greater risk of developing dementia than do persons without elevated homocysteine...Haan et al (5) report significant associations of dementia or cognitive impairment with elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations in a 4.5-y follow-up of a cohort study, conducted after the introduction of mandatory folic acid fortification in the United States, of 1779 Mexican Americans aged 60 y. "

[Watching TV makes kids hungry] Television watching increases motivated responding for food and energy intake in children Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 355-361"Background: Sedentary activities, such as watching television, may disrupt habituation to food cues, thereby increasing motivation to eat and energy intake...Conclusion: These experiments show that television watching can dishabituate eating or disrupt the development of habituation, which may provide a mechanism for increased energy intake associated with watching television."

[Even a month without exercise hurts children's muscles]Reduced physical activity increases intermuscular adipose tissue in healthy young adults Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 377-384 " Background:Recent findings suggest that higher levels of intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) are associated with glucose dysregulation, lower levels of muscle strength, and a heightened risk of disability. ..Design:The subjects (6 men and 12 women aged 19–28 y) underwent a 4-wk control period, which was followed by 4 wk of unilateral lower limb suspension. ..Conclusions:IMAT accumulates markedly after reduced activity in healthy young adults. Increases in IMAT may contribute to losses in muscle strength associated with reduced physical activity..."

[inflammation causes heart disease, blocked by omega-3 fatty acids ] Dietary -linolenic acid inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic subjects Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 385-391 "Background:Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. We previously reported that a diet high in -linolenic acid (ALA) reduces lipid and inflammatory cardiovascular disease risk factors in hypercholesterolemic subjects...Thus, the cardioprotective effects of ALA are mediated in part by a reduction in the production of inflammatory cytokines."

[Caffeine prevents heart disease ] Caffeinated beverage intake and the risk of heart disease mortality in the elderly: a prospective analysis Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 392-398 " during an 8.8-y follow-up...The analysis involved 6594 participants aged 32–86 y with no history of CVD at baseline....Conclusion:Habitual intake of caffeinated beverages provided protection against the risk of heart disease mortality among elderly participants in this prospective epidemiologic analysis."

[eating fat lets you eat more fat -not a good thing ] Effect of different macronutrients in excess on gastric sensory and motor functions and appetite in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 411-418 " Objective: We aimed to compare the effects of 2 wk of supplementation with different classes of macronutrients on gastric function, satiation, and appetite in healthy and overweight subjects...The standard diet provided 20% of energy as protein, 30% as fat, and 50% as carbohydrate. The high-protein, high-fat, and high-carbohydrate diets contained 500 additional kcal in each nutrient class. ..Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 kcal fat in excess of required calories for 2 wk increased food tolerance in healthy normal-weight and obese subjects with a high baseline MTV without significantly changing gastric motor functions."

[caution in reading headlines] High-glycemic-index carbohydrate meals shorten sleep onset Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 426-430 "Conclusions: We showed that a carbohydrate-based high-GI meal resulted in a significant shortening of SOL in healthy sleepers compared with a low-GI meal and was most effective when consumed 4 h before bedtime. The relevance of these findings to persons with sleep disturbance should be determined in future trials." [ed. note - but the high sugar only shortened time to fall asleep about 7 minutes - not worth risking diabetes for.]

[Branched chain amino acids like leucine help you build muscle] Supplementation of soy protein with branched-chain amino acids alters protein metabolism in healthy elderly and even more in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 431-439 " Background: It is often suggested that chronic wasting diseases [eg, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)] may benefit from branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) administration via improved protein metabolism...(rate of ingestion: 0.02 g protein·kg body weight–1·20 min–1)...Conclusion: BCAA supplementation to soy protein enhances WbPS in patients with COPD and alters interorgan protein metabolism in favor of the peripheral (muscle) compartment in healthy elderly and even more in COPD patients."

[probiotics like yoghurt protect from colon cancer] Dietary synbiotics reduce cancer risk factors in polypectomized and colon cancer patients Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 488-496 "Background: Animal studies suggest that prebiotics and probiotics exert protective effects against tumor development in the colon, but human data supporting this suggestion are weak...a synbiotic preparation—oligofructose-enriched inulin (SYN1) + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (BB12)—is able to reduce the risk of colon cancer in humans...Conclusions: Several colorectal cancer biomarkers can be altered favorably by synbiotic intervention"

[vitamin A reduces colon cancer risk] Vitamin A, retinol, and carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 497-503 " Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the associations between intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and specific carotenoids and the risk of gastric cancer in a prospective population-based cohort study of Swedish adults...Conclusion: High intakes of vitamin A, retinol, and provitamin A carotenoids may reduce the risk of gastric cancer."

[cruciferous vegetables like watercress reduce cancer risk] Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 504-510 " Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies...Conclusion: The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations."

[iron increases risk of gallstones] Heme and non-heme iron consumption and risk of gallstone disease in men
Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 518-522 "Objective:The objective of the study was to examine long-term iron intake in relation to the occurrence of gallstone disease...Conclusion:Our findings suggest that a higher consumption of heme iron is associated with a greater risk of gallstone disease among men."

[vegetable intake reduces risk of prostate hyperplasia] Fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of micronutrients, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in US men Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 523-529 " Objective:The objective was to evaluate the association of fruit, vegetable, and micronutrient intakes with BPH. Design:The participants were members of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study and were aged 46–81 y in 1992...Results:Vegetable consumption was inversely associated with BPH...Consumption of fruit and vegetables rich in ß-carotene..., lutein ..., or vitamin C... was inversely related to BPH. With increasing vitamin C intake from foods, men were less likely to have BPH"

[mother's omega-3 intake helps, omega-6 hurts offspring] Maternal diet during pregnancy in relation to eczema and allergic sensitization in the offspring at 2 y of age Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 530-537 "Objective:We analyzed the association between maternal diet during the last 4 wk of pregnancy and allergic sensitization and eczema in the offspring at 2 y of age...Conclusions:We suggest that the intake of allergenic foods and foods rich in n–6 polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy may increase and foods rich in n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may decrease the risk of allergic diseases in the offspring."

[sialic acid in mother's milk helps brain in offspring ] Dietary sialic acid supplementation improves learning and memory in piglets Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 561-569 "Background:Sialic acid, a key component of both human milk oligosaccharides and neural tissues, may be a conditional nutrient during periods of rapid brain growth...Conclusions:Feeding a protein-bound source of sialic acid during early development enhanced learning and increased expression of 2 genes associated with learning in developing piglets. Sialic acid in mammalian milks could play a role in cognitive development."

Supplement: Maternal Nutrition and Optimal Infant Feeding Practices

"Much recent attention has been paid to the effect of the fetal environment on not only healthy birth outcomes but also long-term health outcomes, including a role as an antecedent to adult diseases."

[nutrition details for brain before and after birth] Nutrition and the developing brain: nutrient priorities and measurement Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 614S-620S "Nutrients and growth factors regulate brain development during fetal and early postnatal life. The rapidly developing brain is more vulnerable to nutrient insufficiency yet also demonstrates its greatest degree of plasticity. Certain nutrients have greater effects on brain development than do others. These include protein, energy, certain fats, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, selenium, vitamin A, choline, and folate. The effect of any nutrient deficiency or overabundance on brain development will be governed by the principle of timing, dose, and duration. "

[baby's first foods should include meat or enough zinc] Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition Am J Clin Nutr 2007 85: 639S-645S "Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food..."



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