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AJCN Feb, 2006

[We need a lot of fishoils every day for optimal health] The innate immune system: friend and foe - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 187-188 - ...Although aspects of innate immunity may be compromised by age, aging is often associated with increases in systemic markers of inflammation...cardiovascular disease involves chronic inflammation in the arterial wall that is mediated, in part, by macrophages activated by oxidized lipids (6, 7). Thus, innate immunity is our friend because it protects against pathogens, but it may also be our foe when it plays a role in chronic disease...Arguably, the intervention that has moved farthest down this avenue is the use of n–3 (–3) fatty acids to decrease the risk and severity of inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular disease. This strategy is endorsed by the American Heart Association (8), which recommends that all adults eat fish rich in n–3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The American Heart Association further recommends that those persons at risk of cardiovascular disease consume from 1 to 3 g/d of EPA and DHA as supplements. One of the mechanisms presumed to be behind this reduction in risk is the competition of EPA (20:5n–3) with arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n–6) as a substrate for the synthesis of oxylipids, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes...[HAZARD LEVEL: ] This finding suggests that the antibacterial activity of neutrophils may be impaired, at least at doses 1.6 g/d...The lowest dose of EPA + DHA previously found to inhibit superoxide production by neutrophils was 2.2 g/d, whereas all studies that used supplements containing >4.7 g/d showed such inhibition...antiinflammatory dietary interventions do have a role to play in promoting healthy aging...

[avoid fast food] Fast food and sedentary lifestyle: a combination that leads to obesity - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 189-190-... Bes-Rastrollo et al (1) report in this issue of the Journal that the consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fast-food intake—and, to a lesser extent the consumption of sweetened fruit drinks and red meat—predicts a weight gain of 0.4 kg/y independent of energy intake, physical activity, and television viewing...They point out that soft drinks and other fast foods are low in fiber, which, in their words, may exert adverse effects "on satiety, glucose metabolism, energy density, and the rate of ingestion and gastric emptying." The use of fructose rather than glucose may have similar adverse metabolic implications (3). They also point to the displacement of dairy products as one way in which soft drinks and other fast foods could increase weight. ..

[twice the Daily Value of vitamin A is hazardous and common in the US] The acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 191-201 - The acute and chronic effects of vitamin A toxicity are well documented in the literature. Emerging evidence suggests that subtoxicity without clinical signs of toxicity may be a growing concern, because intake from preformed sources of vitamin A often exceeds the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for adults, especially in developed countries. Osteoporosis and hip fracture are associated with preformed vitamin A intakes that are only twice the current RDA.

[high protein breakfast is important] Effect of a high-protein breakfast on the postprandial ghrelin response - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 211-220 - ...Objective: This study was designed to investigate whether a high-protein (HP) breakfast is more satiating than a high-carbohydrate breakfast (HC) through suppression of postprandial ghrelin concentrations or through other physiologic processes...Conclusions: The HP breakfast decreased postprandial ghrelin concentrations more strongly over time than did the HC breakfast. High associations between ghrelin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon suggest that stimulation of these peptides may mediate the postprandial ghrelin response. ..

[low fat diet - see also NIH study here] Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n–3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 221-226.-...ackground: The quantity and quality of fats consumed in the diet influence the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD)...Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of different types of dietary fat on BP in healthy subjects...Conclusions: Changing the proportions of dietary fat by decreasing SFAs and increasing MUFAs decreased diastolic BP. Interestingly, the beneficial effect on BP induced by fat quality was negated by the consumption of a high total fat intake. ..

[eat fewer french fries and white potato] Potato and french fry consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in women -Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 284-290. .. Objective: The objective was to examine prospectively the relation between potato consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes. ..Design: We conducted a prospective study of 84 555 women in the Nurses' Health Study. ... The participants were followed for 20 y with repeated assessment of diet...Conclusions: Our findings suggest a modest positive association between the consumption of potatoes and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. This association was more pronounced when potatoes were substituted for whole grains.

[get enough vitamin E]Human vitamin E requirements assessed with the use of apples fortified with deuterium-labeled -tocopheryl acetate -Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 299-304-"vitamin E is one of the most difficult nutrients to obtain; only 8% of men and 2% of women in the United States had vitamin E intakes from food that met the 2000 Estimated Average Requirement...

[fiber especially good for men] Fiber, sex, and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 343-349 - Objective: We sought to determine whether fiber affects colorectal adenoma recurrence differently in men and women ...Conclusion: The results of the current analyses indicate that men may experience more benefit from dietary fiber than do women and may help to explain some of the discrepant results reported in the literature.

[3 cups green tea (even black tea) per day is great] Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1 - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 355-361 ...Objective: The objective was to examine the association between green tea consumption and cognitive function in humans...Results:[ lots of statistics, so here is translation

Amount of Cognitive decline (decrease in thinking clearly) - Control group decline that drank no tea is 100%

Drink green tea black or oolong eta coffee
none 100% (control) 100% 100%
1 cup/day 62% 60% 116%
3 cups/day 46% 87% 103%

Conclusion: A higher consumption of green tea is associated with a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment in humans. [As shown in the table, those who drank 3 cups/day had 46% less, almost half as much decline in brain function.]

Supplements: Supplement: Living Well to 100: Nutrition, Genetics, Inflammation: including: Jose M Ordovas
Preface - Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 403S ;

What is healthy aging in the 21st century?

Starting down the right path: nutrition connections with chronic diseases of later life

Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms

The future of living well to 100

[Summary - The key points in the symposium relate to inflammation and genetics. It is becoming apparent to researchers that inflammation plays a key role in chronic diseases. We know that anti-oxidants help control the damage of free radicals. We are learning that omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, and polyphenols help control inflammation. Controlling both of these will help us live much healthier lives. The other component, the genetic inheritance unique to each of us, is also starting to be understood. As this story unfolds, we will understand why some of us absorb vitamin E easily, some gain weight even when eating very little, and some get cancer even when eating lots of fruits and vegetables. However, we can still generalize that everyone ought to get plenty of vitamin E, avoid junk food, and eat fruits and vegetables. In that light, notice the next supplement appearing after the Symposium above:]

Supplement: Looking Ahead in Honoring the Past: What do -omics mean for the science and policy of the nutritional sciences? Am J Clin Nutr 2006 83: 520S-522S... The development of systems biology is revolutionizing the way we are studying and learning about human health. It is a way of thinking and a systematic attempt to integrate information from several fields of study (physical, biological, chemical, engineering, etc) to develop a more kinetic and real-time understanding of complex biological processes.

 

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