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J Nutrition Jan, 2010 -- See the full post at http://www.nutritioninvestigator.org/. There you will find longer synopses after the summary. Links go to published articles.

SUMMARY - Starting a new decade with resolve: 1. World food crisis: a wake-up call to save a generation of children - A group of eminent scientists met to map out opportunities for the global community to respond more effectively to today's economic crisis in ways that will protect not just jobs and physical infrastructure but the lives and future productivity of the world's poorest people.

Remember what is well established
2. How cruciferous vegetables like broccoli prevent cancer
3. Omega-3 fats reduce risk for heart disease
4. More omega-3 and less saturated fat improves HDL/LDL levels

Novel discoveries
5. Healthy childhood diet prevents early puberty
6. Higher vitamin B6 intake protects against inflammation
7. Natural trans-fats from milk fat reduce risk for heart disease
8. Legume diet reduces inflammation
9. Dietary fiber, magnesium, and low sugar reduce diabetes

New research ideas
10. Bioactive peptides not well tested
11. Nanotechnology being explored for nutrition

SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
1. World food crisis: a wake-up call to save a generation of children
- A group of eminent scientists met to map out opportunities for the global community to respond more effectively to today's economic crisis in ways that will protect not just jobs and physical infrastructure but the lives and future productivity of the world's poorest people.As recognized by Nobel Laureates, some of the most cost-effective interventions include tackling deficiencies in vitamins and minerals through distribution of vitamin A capsules to prevent blindness and reduce mortality, using zinc tablets in the treatment of diarrhea, and fortifying salt with iodine to protect mental capacity.

2.How cruciferous vegetables like broccoli prevent cancer - We previously reported that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegetables, suppresses angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro. We conclude that both I3C and DIM inhibit angiogenesis at least in part via inactivation of ERK1/2 and that inactivation of Akt by DIM is responsible for its stronger antiangiogenic effects than those of I3C.

3. Omega-3 fats reduce risk for heart disease - Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) often have elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), contributing to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.Overall, acute intake of a high (n-3)LCPUFA beverage shifted the balance between plasma PAI-1 and t-PA, which might indicate a lower capacity for fibrinolysis.

4. More omega-3 and less saturated fat improves HDL/LDL levels - Decreasing consumption of SFA and butter during the 10-y period were associated with moderate decreases in serum total cholesterol independently of initiation of lipid-lowering drug treatment...Increased consumption of (n-3) fatty acids and fish was independently related to modest increases in serum HDL-cholesterol.

5. Healthy childhood diet delays puberty - Children with lower diet quality according to a nutrient density-based index appear to enter puberty at an earlier age, independently of prepubertal body composition.

6. Higher vitamin B6 intake protects against inflammation - In conclusion, higher vitamin B-6 intakes were linked to protection against inflammation .

7. Natural trans-fats from milk fat reduce risk for heart disease - Epidemiological evidence has associated dietary trans fatty acids (TFA) with heart disease. TFA are primarily from hydrogenated fats rich in elaidic acid, but dairy products also contain naturally occurring TFA such as vaccenic acid...In summary, consuming a hydrogenated elaidic acid-rich diet stimulates atherosclerosis, whereas a vaccenic acid-rich butter protects against atherosclerosis in this animal model.

8. Legume diet reduces inflammation - The Legume Inflammation Feeding Experiment is, to our knowledge, the first randomized crossover feeding trial testing the effects of a legume-enriched, low-glycemic index (GI) diet among men characterized for colorectal adenomas and insulin resistance (IR) status.The diets were a legume-enriched (250 g/d)...Participants who consumed the legume diet had favorably improved CRP (–20.2 and –18.3%)

9. Dietary fiber, magnesium, and low sugar reduce diabetes - High intake of grain fiber reduced diabetes risk significantly by 10% in men and women. High vegetable fiber intake lowered risk by 22% in all men but not women. Mg intake reduced risk

10. Bioactive peptides not well tested - Dietary peptides have been suggested to possess biological activity in vivo and could affect cardiovascular disease parameters, based on data derived from in vitro experiments.Unfortunately, this research approach has an inherent flaw. It neglects the poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties of peptides resulting in low peptide bioavailability.

11. Nanotechnology being explored for nutrition - Dr. Qingrong Huang described how the disease prevention properties of dietary supplements such as polyphenols have attracted much attention in recent years. Their biological effects include antioxidative, anticancer, and other properties that may prevent chronic disease as suggested by evidence from in vitro, animal, and human studies. Sales of the dietary supplements are high and growing annually. Thus, the development of high quality, stable dietary supplements with good bioavailability could become important. Although the use of dietary supplements in capsules and tablets is abundant, their effect is frequently diminished or even lost, because many of these compounds present solubility challenges. The major challenges of dietary polyphenols include their poor water solubility and oral bioavailability. Thus, novel delivery systems are needed to address these problems.

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