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AJCN Jan, 2009 - The January American Journal of Clinical Nutrition ...

SUMMARY - AJCN Jan, 2009 - The January American Journal of Clinical Nutrition-lots to digest! Read the full stories with links at http://www.beloit.edu/nutrition/ln/ln09janajcn.htm.
Reasons to stop drinking soda -
1. No benefit from nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS)
2. Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are major source of US calories
 [see research poster of hazard of acid in SSBs ]

Details of benefits of exercise and how much to get -
3. walking at a 4-mile/h pace for 150 min/wk resulted in a modest 1–3% weight loss
4. Just a little exercise helps children

Build a stronger body
5. 20g of protein sufficient to build muscles after working out

Cancer news -
6. Garlic may reduce risk of cancer - The Bible mentions garlic with regard to the Jews’ flight from Egypt. Garlic bulbs were found in tombs of the pharaohs, in Crete, and in ancient cultures throughout the world. Indeed, Hippocrates considered garlic to be a vital part of his therapeutic armamentarium
7. High meat and fat diet increases ovarian cancer risk
8. Fruit and veggie diet has little effect on cancer risk - The 20-fold variation in risk of many cancers across geographic regions suggests that environmental factors, such as diet, might be important in the respective etiologies of cancers (1). it has been estimated that 30% of cancer could be explained by diet (2)

Obesity results -
9. Nervous systems of obese people are less sensitive to how much sugar they eat -
10. Obesity accelerates duration but not onset of puberty

Specific food intakes to consider
11. Eating 6 mg capsaicin/d aids abdominal fat loss
12. Calcium intake does not affect breast cancer risk, but a high carbohydrate intake is.
13. Hispanic women are likely to need folic acid supplements - Background: Folic acid can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) if taken before pregnancy.
14. Carotenoids protect bone strength
15. Folic acid and vitamin B12 derivatives help children with autism
16. MSG may be useful for protein digestion and gastric emptying

DETAILS -
1. No benefit from nonnutritive sweeteners (NNS) - Only about 15% of the US population aged >2 y ingest NNS...their use has increased in concert with BMI in the population...evidence of long-term efficacy for weight management is not available. The addition of NNS to diets poses no benefit for weight loss or reduced weight gain without energy restriction. There are long-standing and recent concerns that inclusion of NNS in the diet promotes energy intake and contributes to obesity.

2. Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are major source of US calories - Background: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes...Conclusions: Over the past decade, US adult SSB consumption has increased. SSB comprises a considerable source of total daily intake and is the largest source of beverage calories. SSB consumption is highest among subgroups also at greatest risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. [see research poster of hazard of acid in SSBs ]

3. Further evidence for the benefits of walking - we found that there is a large body of research on physical activity and weight loss, as well as short-term weight maintenance after weight loss, but little on the amount of exercise needed for long-term weight maintenance...With regard to weight maintenance, a dose of physical activity in the range equivalent to walking at a 4-mile/h pace for 150 min/wk resulted in a modest 1–3% weight loss, which was consistent with weight stability over time...Less than 5% of adults get the recommended 2.5 h of moderate intensity activity (of any type) per week (5).

4. Just a little exercise helps children - High maternal BMI and low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity independently contribute to the Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and may be targets for future interventions. Relatively small increases in physical activity may significantly reduce the risk of MetS in healthy children.

5. 20g of protein sufficient to build muscles after working out - Background: The anabolic effect of resistance exercise is enhanced by the provision of dietary protein. Objectives: We aimed to determine the ingested protein dose response of muscle (MPS) and albumin protein synthesis (APS) after resistance exercise...Conclusions: Ingestion of 20 g intact protein is sufficient to maximally stimulate MPS and APS after resistance exercise...Finally, dietary protein consumed after exercise in excess [of 20g is simply extra calories.]

6. Garlic may reduce risk of cancer - The use of garlic for medicinal purposes dates to antiquity. The Bible mentions garlic with regard to the Jews’ flight from Egypt. Garlic bulbs were found in tombs of the pharaohs, in Crete, and in ancient cultures throughout the world. Indeed, Hippocrates considered garlic to be a vital part of his therapeutic armamentarium (1)...Garlic together with vitamins E and C reduced the incidence of precancerous gastric lesions in a large population in China (3). Garlic derivatives have been found to influence an increasing number of molecular mechanisms in carcinogenesis, including DNA adduct formation, scavenging of free radicals, mutagenesis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and angiogenesis (4). The growth rate of cancer cells is reduced by garlic...

7. High meat and fat diet increases ovarian cancer risk

8. Fruit and veggie diet has little effect on cancer risk - The 20-fold variation in risk of many cancers across geographic regions suggests that environmental factors, such as diet, might be important in the respective etiologies of cancers (1). On the basis of international variation, time trends, and epidemiologic research, it has been estimated that 30% of cancer could be explained by diet (2) and that fruit and vegetable intake could potentially prevent 5–12% of cancers (3). But in this 8 year study of about 500,000 people in the US, intake of fruit and vegetables was generally unrelated to total cancer incidence in this cohort.

9. Nervous systems of obese people are less sensitive to how much sugar they eat - Glucose ingestion stimulates sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in lean subjects, whereas blunted responses have been reported in the obese.

10. Obesity accelerates duration but not onset of puberty - Conclusion: This longitudinal study suggests that prepubertal body composition in healthy boys and girls may not be critical for the initiation of the pubertal growth spurt but instead affects the progression of pubertal development, which results in earlier attainment of later pubertal stages.

11. Eating capsaicin aids abdominal fat loss - Conclusions: Treatment with 6 mg/d capsinoids orally appeared to be safe and was associated with abdominal fat loss.

12. Calcium intake does not affect breast cancer risk, but a high carbohydrate intake is.

13. Hispanic women are likely to need folic acid supplements - Background: Folic acid can prevent up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) if taken before pregnancy. Compared with other race-ethnicities, Hispanic women have higher rates of NTDs, lower rates of folic acid supplement use, and lower total folic acid intakes.

14. Carotenoids protect bone strength - Conclusions: Carotenoids showed protective associations against 4-y loss in trochanter BMD in men and in lumbar spine in women... these results support a protective role of carotenoids for BMD in older men and women.

15. Folic acid and vitamin B12 derivatives help children with autism - Conclusion: The significant improvements observed in transmethylation metabolites and glutathione redox status after treatment suggest that targeted nutritional intervention with methylcobalamin and folinic acid may be of clinical benefit in some children who have autism.

16. MSG may be useful for protein digestion and gastric emptying - Conclusions: Enrichment with MSG facilitated gastric emptying of a protein-rich meal exclusively, which suggests that free glutamate is important for protein digestion and may be helpful in the management of delayed gastric emptying.

 

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