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J Nutrition Supplement: Food, Nutrition, and Cancer Jan, 2007
Supplement: International Research Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Cancer:
[SUMMARY OF ENTIRE CONFERENCE] Review of the International Research Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Cancer, 2006 J. Nutr. 2007 137: 159S-160S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/159S] "obesity (an important cancer risk factor)...beneficial effects of exercise on serum hormone levels, colon crypt cell proliferation, hyperinsulinemia, and other biomarkers of cancer risk. ..status of vitamin D and its analogs with risk for breast, prostate, and other cancers. ..vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D3] displays antiproliferative effects in many cancer cell lines. Another presentation reviewed evidence linking obesity and cancer risk. ..current U.S. obesity patterns are responsible for 14% of cancer deaths in men and 20% of cancer deaths in women...The speaker presented data showing that diets high in meat and fat cause certain gut flora to outcompete others; the resulting bacterial populations produce a colonic milieu marked by a chronic inflammatory state that could promote the cancer process.
The link between chronic inflammation and cancer was also the featured topic of an afternoon split session. The first presentation reviewed the mechanisms linking inflammation to gene mutation, modifications of cancer-related proteins, and the expression of cancer genes. ..charred meat carcinogen PhIP in genome damage leading to invasive carcinoma. Another speaker discussed a variety of phytochemicals found in cranberries and their antiinflammatory properties in vivo...dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids found in fish oil alter the balance of subpopulations of immune cells that mediate inflammatory effects... ß-Carotene is a potent antioxidant in low, dietary doses but seems to exert potentially procarcinogenic behavior at higher, isolated doses such as those utilized in some trials... tobacco smoke and alcohol consumption disrupts retinoid metabolism and signaling. By using combined nutritional agents, it may be possible to restore normal retinoid functioning and protect against cancer in high-risk populations. The potential protective role played by the active form of vitamin D in combination with genistein was the subject of the next presentation. Genistein cotreatment appears to prolong the life of calcitriol, increase its concentration in cells, and thus enhance its ability to inhibit prostate cancer carcinogenesis in vitro...Results show that low dietary calcium intake increases COX-2 expression and that this and similar effects can be attenuated by genistein. This suggests that dietary calcium intake and intake of phytoestrogens may interact to alter colon cancer risk...even mild maternal protein undernutrition during a specific stage of embryonic development in rats and mice can produce a variety of changes in development linked to higher cancer risk. The next speaker discussed a rodent liver cancer model in which methyl-deficient diets seem to induce liver cancer by altering histone structure in liver tissue. Another speaker also presented data on the importance of DNA methylation and maternal nutrition. In the yellow Agouti mouse, supplementation with methyl-donating substances such as folic acid during pregnancy reduced the risk that offspring would develop obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Notably, this was accomplished by increasing methylation of the transposable gene element at CpG sites...a presenter reviewed the many potential mechanisms whereby plant polyphenols could influence DNA methylation...dietary antioxidants can reduce oxidative stress in the cells of patients suffering from ataxia telangiectasia (AT), an inherited disorder linked to cancer in humans.
In another morning split session, presenters reported on ongoing trials involving cancer survivors. The first speaker discussed the influence of dietary fat on breast cancer outcomes, ...The next speaker noted that trials with breast cancer survivors are finally beginning to focus on diet, examining potential links to recurrence and survival time..."
Exercise and Biomarkers for Cancer Prevention Studies J. Nutr. 2007 137: 161S-169S[http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/161S] " The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that 25% of cancer cases worldwide are caused by overweight or obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. These lifestyle patterns may increase cancer risk by several mechanisms including increased estrogens and testosterone, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, increased inflammation, and depressed immune function. Several randomized clinical trials have shown that physical activity and diet interventions can change biomarkers of cancer risk. In a controlled physical activity trial, we found decreases in serum estrogen, testosterone, and insulin in overweight, sedentary postmenopausal women with a 1-y exercise program consisting of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, 45 min/d, 5 d/wk. In another controlled trial in middle-aged to older persons, we found that a 1-y exercise intervention of 60 min/d, 6 d/wk, reduced colon crypt cell proliferation in men who adhered closely to the program..."
Inflammation, Cancer, and Targets of Ginseng J. Nutr. 2007 137: 183S-185S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/183S] "Here, we use ginseng as an example of an antiinflammatory molecule that targets many of the key players in the inflammation-to-cancer sequence. "
Cranberry and Its Phytochemicals: A Review of In Vitro Anticancer Studies J. Nutr. 2007 137: 186S-193S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/186S] "Results from in vitro studies using a variety of tumor models show that polyphenolic extracts from Vaccinium macrocarpon inhibit the growth and proliferation of breast, colon, prostate, lung, and other tumors, as do flavonols, proanthocyanidin oligomers, and triterpenoids isolated from the fruit. The unique combination of phytochemicals found in cranberry fruit may produce synergistic health benefits..."
[Fishoil, inflammation, and colon cancer] Immunomodulatory Effects of (n-3) Fatty Acids: Putative Link to Inflammation and Colon Cancer J. Nutr. 2007 137: 200S-204S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/200S] "hronic inflammation and colorectal cancer are closely linked. Although the overall mechanisms of inflammation-associated gastrointestinal carcinogenesis are complex, it is clear that antiinflammatory therapy is efficacious against neoplastic progression and malignant conversion. From a dietary perspective, fish oil containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has antiinflammatory properties..."
[Vitamin D and soy for prostate health] Calcitriol and Genistein Actions to Inhibit the Prostaglandin Pathway: Potential Combination Therapy to Treat Prostate Cancer J. Nutr. 2007 137: 205S-210S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/205S] " We present an overview of the prostaglandin (PG) pathway as a novel target for the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) using a combination of calcitriol and genistein, both of which have known antiproliferative properties...Genistein, a major component of soy, is a potent inhibitor of the activity of CYP24, the enzyme that initiates the degradation of calcitriol. .."
Dietary Polyphenols May Affect DNA Methylation J. Nutr. 2007 137: 223S-228S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/223S] " Certain dietary polyphenols, such as (–)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) from green tea and genistein from soybean, have been demonstrated to inhibit DNA methyltransferases (DNMT) in vitro. ..On the other hand, the consumption of excessive amounts of polyphenols in dietary supplements may affect DNA methylation status..."
Lifestyle Factors and Survival in Women with Breast Cancer J. Nutr. 2007 137: 236S-242S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/236S] "it is estimated that there are over 2 million breast cancer survivors in the United States..."
Can Biomarkers Help Us Understand the Nutritional and Lifestyle Factors Important in Cancer Prognosis?
The Biological Revolution: Understanding the Impact of SNPs on Diet-Cancer Interrelationships J. Nutr. 2007 137: 253S-258S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/253S] " Evidence is accumulating that individual risk of neoplasia depends on complex interactions among genetic inheritance, a range of exposures both in utero and in postnatal life, and the play of chance. ..There is only fragmentary evidence of the scale and nature of diet-gene interactions that modulate risk of neoplasia, but it seems probable that such interactions will play a significant role as they do in other complex diseases including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. All existing evidence about diet-gene interactions and cancer risk comes from observational studies,..."
Metabolomics of a Superorganism J. Nutr. 2007 137: 259S-266S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/137/1/259S] " The human can be thought of as a human-microbe hybrid, and the health of this superorganism will be affected by intrinsic properties such as human genetics, diurnal cycles, and age and by extrinsic factors such as lifestyle choices (food and drink, drug intake) and the acquisition of a stable "healthy" gut microflora (the so-called microbiome)...This article provides an overview of metabolomics and discusses how data are generated and analyzed within a systems biology framework. The role of metabolomics in nutrigenomics is also discussed, as are the concepts of the human being a superorganism and the complexities required to be overcome to understand human health and disease. "
NOTES from figure 3: Intrinsic factors not easily controlled in your metabolome: body composition, tissue turnover, metabolic rate at rest, age, human genotype, health status, reproductive status, diurnal cycle. Extrinsic factors easily controlled by you: nutrients, non-nutrients, drugs, physical activity, microbiome, mental status.
Frontiers in Polyphenols and Cancer Prevention J. Nutr. 2007 137: 267S-269S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/267S] " The health benefits of polyphenols are of much interest currently. To illustrate this point, a search using the term "polyphenols" identified no fewer than 3014 separate hits in PubMed, with 429 reviews, 88 of which appeared since 2005. Among the most highly cited class of polyphenols are the flavonoids, which comprise a large and diverse family of compounds synthesized by plants. Flavonoid subclasses include anthocyanidins in berries and grapes, flavanols in tea, flavanones in citrus fruits, flavonols in onions, flavones in herbs and peppers, and isoflavones in soy ..."
Oral Presentation Abstracts J. Nutr. 2007 137: 275S-277S [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/full/137/1/275S] "Vitamin D and Cancer Risk: What Do We Know? ...Low circulating concentrations of 25OHD have been associated with risk of a number of cancer types including breast and prostate. .." "Obesity and Cancer Risk: An Overview. ..Based on associations observed in that study, we estimate that current patterns of overweight and obesity in the United States could account for 14% of all cancer deaths in men and 20% in women and that maintenance of optimal body weight throughout adult life could prevent 90,000 cancer deaths annually in the United States. .."