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AJCN Jan, 2007

[Of theoretical interest only-Obesity and adiponection]The current and future search for obesity genes. " In the 12 y since the cloning of the ob gene (1), which coded for the adipose-generated hormone leptin, there has been a continuing search for other genes whose polymorphisms contribute to obesity... Adiponectin is a hormone, ... The significant actions of adiponectin are those of sensitizing tissues to insulin and increasing fatty acid oxidation. Lower adiponectin concentrations in humans are associated with greater visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and incidence of type 2 diabetes ..."

[Get a B12 supplement when older ]Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad, and the puzzle of vitamin B-12 "In 2005, an increased risk of cognitive decline was reported in elderly persons [over 60] who took folic acid supplements in doses >400 µg/d (9). However, an interaction between folate intake and vitamin B-12 intake was observed such that the cognitive decline was less marked in those who also took high-dose vitamin B-12–containing supplements...The "good news" is that, in subjects with a normal vitamin B-12 status, high serum folate (>59 nmol/L) was associated with protection from cognitive impairment. .. The "not-so-good" news from the study by Morris et al is that the relation between high serum folate and cognitive impairment was reversed in subjects who had a low vitamin B-12 status. .."

[UL for vitamin D raised to 10,000 IU]Risk assessment for vitamin D "New data continue to emerge regarding the health benefits of vitamin D beyond its role in bone...The UL established by the FNB for vitamin D (50 µg, or 2000 IU) is not based on current evidence and is viewed by many as being too restrictive...Collectively, the absence of toxicity in trials conducted in healthy adults that used vitamin D dose 250 µg/d (10 000 IU vitamin D3) supports the confident selection of this value as the UL."

[BMI unimportant - Keep your waistline trim]Waist circumference is associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects "body mass index (BMI) may not be an ideal index of obesity in prediction of pulmonary dysfunction...WC, but not BMI, is negatively and consistently associated with pulmonary function in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects."

[Even normal weight people require regular exercise] Normal-weight obese syndrome: early inflammation? "In obese subjects, the adipose mass represents an important source of proinflammatory cytokines. We have identified a new syndrome—the normal-weight obese (NWO) syndrome—in women with normal weight and body mass index but whose fat mass is >30% of their total body weight and whose risk of developing obesity-related diseases is likely increased."

[Children need exercise to control waist and be healthy] Visceral abdominal fat is correlated with whole-body fat and physical activity among 8-y-old children at risk of obesity "Abdominal fat is more related to health risk than is whole-body fat..."

[Getting 1200 mg elemental calcium and 400 IU vitamin D helped weight loss program] Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations "Consumption of calcium+D during a weight-loss intervention enhanced the beneficial effect of body weight loss on the lipid and lipoprotein profile in overweight or obese women with usual low daily calcium intake." (supplement had 1200 mg elemental calcium and 400 IU vitamin D)

[Exercise burns fat in diet] Exercise increases the proportion of fat utilization during short-term consumption of a high-fat diet " Amounts of exercise consistent with the Institute of Medicine's recommendations reduce the time required to match fat oxidation to a change in the percentage of fat in the diet. Because short-term consumption of high-fat diets is thought to contribute to excess fat accumulation, regular exercise should be protective and should help maintain a healthy body composition."

[Folate, B6 and B12 reduce risk of heart failure] Plasma B vitamins and their relation to the severity of chronic heart failure "Total homocysteine (tHcy) has been linked to the severity of chronic heart failure (CHF). Elevated tHcy concentrations are mainly caused by folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies."

[Iron supplements during pregnancy don't block zinc] Effect of high-dose iron supplements on fractional zinc absorption and status in pregnant women"In iron-replete pregnant women who consumed a Western diet, no detectable adverse effects on zinc metabolism were observed after ingestion of 100 mg Fe/d. An increase in the efficiency of zinc absorption was observed during late pregnancy."

[Breast feeding helps infant eyesight] Infant nutrition and stereoacuity at age 4-6 y "These findings support the hypothesis that breastfeeding benefits long-term stereoscopic development. An effect of DHA cannot be excluded, but the lack of difference in stereoacuity between infants randomly assigned to DHA-containing and those assigned to control formula raises the hypothesis that factors in breast milk other than DHA account for the observed benefits. "

[If you have celiac disease] A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to establish a safe gluten threshold for patients with celiac disease "The ingestion of contaminating gluten should be kept lower than 50 mg/d in the treatment of CD"

[Eating at fast food restaurants correlates with obesity] Differential associations of fast food and restaurant food consumption with 3-y change in body mass index: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study "Cross-sectionally, fast food, but not restaurant food, consumption was positively associated with BMI. Similarly, higher consumption of fast food at year 7 was associated with a 0.16-unit higher BMI at year 10. "

[carbohydrate lowers good (HDL) cholesterol levels] Carbohydrate intake and HDL in a multiethnic population "HDL cholesterol was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the lowest tertile of carbohydrate intake than in the highest tertile."

[trans fats cause infertility] Dietary fatty acid intakes and the risk of ovulatory infertility "trans Unsaturated fats may increase the risk of ovulatory infertility when consumed instead of carbohydrates or unsaturated fats commonly found in nonhydrogenated vegetable oils."

[Atkins diet hazardous, high protein diet succeeds]Ketogenic low-carbohydrate diets have no metabolic advantage over nonketogenic low-carbohydrate diets "Low-carbohydrate diets have withstood recent scientific scrutiny (2, 3) and may soon become the "diet of choice" for effective weight loss. We challenged the view that the metabolic advantage of these diets is related to ketosis, and we showed that dietary protein (1.2 g/kg body wt) generates the metabolic milieu for efficient weight loss (1). That is, dietary protein—not ketosis or dietary fat or carbohydrate—corresponds to reduced hunger and elevated energy expenditure during active weight loss"

[C-reactive protein (CRP) new serum marker for heart disease, caused by inflammation]Book review: C-Reactive Protein and Cardiovascular Disease "a timely and interesting review of the prominent role played by inflammation in atherosclerosis. It focuses on the prototypic marker of inflammation in man—ie, C-reactive protein (CRP)—and its role as a novel marker of cardiovascular disease risk. "

See also separate file: Supplement: Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements and Chronic Disease Prevention: State-of-the-Science Conference: Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements and Chronic Disease Prevention

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