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J Nutrition January, 2006

[complex carbohydrate intake may relieve lactose intolerance] Tao He et al, Colonic Fermentation May Play a Role in Lactose Intolerance in Humans J. Nutr. 2006 136: 58-63.

The results of our previous study suggested that in addition to the small intestinal lactase activity and transit time, colonic processing of lactose may play a role in lactose intolerance...The tolerant and intolerant groups did not differ in the rate or degree of hydrolysis of lactose or production of glucose and galactose...Fecal bacterial composition did not differ between the 2 groups. The results indicate that the degree and rate of lactose hydrolysis in the colon do not play a role in lactose intolerance. However, after lactose is hydrolyzed, a faster and higher production of microbial intermediate and end metabolites may be related to the occurrence of symptoms.

[soy reduces cancer risk] Kathleen T. Shiverick at al, Soy Isoflavones Alter Expression of Genes Associated with Cancer Progression, Including Interleukin-8, in Androgen-Independent PC-3 Human Prostate Cancer Cells, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 75-82.

High consumption of soy isoflavones in Asian diets has been correlated with a lower incidence of clinically important cases of prostate cancer. The chemopreventive properties of these diets may result from an interaction of several types of isoflavones, including genistein and daidzein...Our data show that ISF inhibits the growth of PC-3 cells through modulation of cell cycle progression and the expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, metastasis, and angiogenesis.

[fish oil helps infants] Lotte Lauritzen et al, Fish Oil Affects Blood Pressure and the Plasma Lipid Profile in Healthy Danish Infants
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 94-99

This randomized trial is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants (n = 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. ..The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3) LCPUFA content (P < 0.001). At 12 mo, infants administered fish oil had a lower systolic blood pressure ..., a ...higher plasma total cholesterol (P = 0.02), and a ...higher LDL cholesterol (P = 0.04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid ...

[control weight during pregnancy; breast feeding helps reduce weight] Chris L. Kjolhede et al, Excessive Weight Gain during Pregnancy Is Associated with Earlier Termination of Breast-Feeding among White Women, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 140-146.

High prepregnant BMI is associated with reduced initiation and duration of breast-feeding (BF)...Excessive GWG was associated with a measure of failure to initiate and/or sustain BF in all categories of prepregnant BMI. Thus, in addition to conceiving at a healthy weight, gaining the recommended amount of weight during pregnancy is also important for successful BF.

[fish oil builds stronger bones] Barry I. Graubard et al, Dietary Saturated Fat Intake Is Inversely Associated with Bone Density in Humans: Analysis of NHANES III, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 159-165.

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. ..Data from women were further adjusted for use of hormone replacement therapy. Including dietary protein, vitamin C, and ß-carotene in the model did not influence the outcome...Saturated fat intake was negatively associated with BMD at several hip sites. The greatest effects were seen among men < 50 y old ..These data indicate that BMD is negatively associated with saturated fat intake, and that men may be particularly vulnerable to these effects.

[coffee reduces breast cancer risk] Kirsten B. Moysich et al, Consumption of Coffee, but Not Black Tea, Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 166-171

Caffeine has been suggested as a possible risk factor for breast cancer, potentially through its effect of facilitating the development of benign breast disease. However, coffee and tea also contain polyphenols, which exhibit anticarcinogenic properties...Among premenopausal women, consumption of regular coffee was associated with linear declines in breast cancer risk (P for trend = 0.03); consumers of 4 cups/d experienced a 40% risk reduction...Our findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on premenopausal, but not postmenopausal breast cancer risk. ..

[get vegetables into grandparents] Linda P. Fried et al, Low Serum Selenium and Total Carotenoids Predict Mortality among Older Women Living in the Community: The Women's Health and Aging Studies, J. Nutr. 2006 136: 172-176.

Selenium and the carotenoids play an important role in antioxidant defenses and in the redox regulation involved in inflammation. ..(n = 632; 70–79 y old)...Adjusting for age, education, smoking, BMI, poor appetite, and chronic diseases, higher serum selenium...and higher serum total carotenoids ... were associated with a lower risk of mortality. Women living in the community who have higher serum selenium and carotenoids are at a lower risk of death.

 

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