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AJCN Jan, 2006
[Oxidized LDL rather than LDL causes harm] Oxidized LDL and abdominal obesity: a key to understanding the metabolic syndrome, Robert H Knopp and Pathmaja Paramsothy
The pathophysiologic interactions of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension were first described by Reaven (1) in 1988... guidelines were published in 2001... it became apparent that not only obesity was epidemic in the American population, but the metabolic syndrome was as well. The association of the metabolic syndrome with coronary artery disease was underscored by the ATP Advisory of 2004...A possible candidates is a common inflammatory stress condition, which is expressed as an increase in C-reactive protein and other inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 (4). Another marker that is popular among practitioners is small dense LDL, ... Proximate to the development of each of these abnormalities is the enhancement of underlying oxidative stress... This observation is important for several reasons. First, it indicates that enhanced oxidative stress is associated with the earliest pathophysiologic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome—abdominal obesity. Second, it extends the evidence for enhanced oxidative stress to LDL, which in its small dense form is associated with a greater susceptibility to oxidative stress and is a standard component of the dyslipidemia associated with the metabolic syndrome. Third, the level of proof obtained with the use of an antibody to oxidized LDL is higher than that obtained with earlier approaches to measuring LDL oxidation. The antibody measures oxidized phospholipids in the LDL particle, which are capable of propagating oxidative reactions in their own right...Given this new evidence—that enhanced oxidative damage to circulating lipoproteins in plasma is related only to abdominal obesity—it is not surprising that there is evidence of enhanced inflammatory stress, as indicated by the increase in CRP reported by many observers.
[kids are young as 10 must stay fit] Standardization of waist circumference reference data, Jack Wang
the results indicate that increasing waist circumference (WC) in young persons has health risk factors similar to those in adults...WC is equally useful in predicting health risk in persons as young as 10 y old as it is in adults...WC and serum triacylglycerol concentrations are highly correlated in children of homogeneous background, ...
S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is the major biological methyl donor. AdoMet's methyl group arises both from the diet (eg, methionine, choline, and betaine) and from de novo synthesis...Such methylation reactions play major roles in biosynthesis, regulation, and detoxification. Creatine synthesis is thought to account for the use of >70% of AdoMet-derived methyl groups in humans...
[take small servings as often as you want and eat quantity rather than calories] Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake, Barbara J Rolls et al
Background: When the portion size and energy density (in kcal/g) of a food are varied simultaneously in a single meal, each influences energy intake independently...Conclusions: Reductions in portion size and energy density independently decreased ad libitum energy intake in women when commonly consumed foods were served over 2 d. Reductions in both portion size and energy density can help to moderate energy intake without increased hunger. ..
[children's weight control] Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls, Janne K Lorenzen et al
Conclusions: Habitual dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with body fat, but a low-dose calcium supplement had no effect on body weight, height, or body fat over 1 y in young girls. It is possible that the effect of calcium on body weight is only exerted if it is ingested as part of a meal, or the effect may be due to other ingredients in dairy products, and calcium may simply be a marker for a high dairy intake. [Note last month's article stating that only 800 mg calcium are needed, not 2,000, to grow healthy bones.]
[10 min workouts add up] Exercise and postprandial lipemia: effect of continuous compared with intermittent activity patterns, Masashi Miyashita et al
[ox-LDL is culprit - ed.note-vit C reduces ox-LDL levels] Circulating oxidized LDL is associated with increased waist circumference independent of body mass index in men and women, Tanja Weinbrenner et al
Objective: The objective was to describe the association of waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) with plasma circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) and C-reactive protein (CRP). ..overweight or obese subjects with higher WCs (WC 102 cm for men and 88 cm for women) were at significantly higher risk of increased ox-LDL. Conclusion: High WC was associated with high concentrations of ox-LDL independently of BMI in the study population.
[mature adults may need 3 times Daily value of vitamin B12] A daily intake of approximately 6 µg vitamin B-12 appears to saturate all the vitamin B-12–related variables in Danish postmenopausal women, Mustafa Vakur Bor et al
Background: Recommended daily intakes of vitamin B-12 vary between 2 and 6 µg [in US it is 2.4, and that's what many multivitamins have]...Conclusion: A daily vitamin B-12 intake of 6 µg appeared to be sufficient to correct all the vitamin B-12–related variables measured in the postmenopausal Danish women in this study.
[evidence supporting high protein diet satisfies hunger] Ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 concentrations, 24-h satiety, and energy and substrate metabolism during a high-protein diet and measured in a respiration chamber, Manuela PGM Lejeune et al
Background: The mechanism of protein-induced satiety remains unclear...Twelve healthy women aged 18–40 y were fed in energy balance an adequate-protein (AP: 10%, 60%, and 30% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) or an high protein [HP] (30%, 40%, and 30% of energy from protein, carbohydrate, and fat, respectively) diet...Conclusion: An HP diet, compared with an AP diet, fed at energy balance for 4 d increased 24-h satiety, thermogenesis, sleeping metabolic rate, protein balance, and fat oxidation. Satiety was related to protein intake, and incidentally to ghrelin and GLP-1 concentrations, only during the HP diet.
[whole grain diet important for best health] Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults, Nadine R Sahyoun et al
Conclusion: Whole-grain intake is a modifiable dietary risk factor, and older and young adults should be encouraged to increase their daily intake to 3 servings/d.
[being overweight is a risk factor for osteoporosis] Relation of body composition, fat mass, and serum lipids to osteoporotic fractures and bone mineral density in Chinese men and women, Yi-Hsiang Hsu et al
Conclusions: Risks of osteoporosis, osteopenia, and nonspine fractures were significantly higher for subjects with higher percentage body fat independent of body weight, physical activity, and age. Thus, fat mass has a negative effect on bone mass in contrast with the positive effect of weight-bearing itself.
[carotenoids good for you] Modification of lymphocyte DNA damage by carotenoid supplementation in postmenopausal women, Xianfeng Zhao et al
Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases related to aging such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Carotenoids could be a part of a protective strategy to minimize oxidative damage in vulnerable populations, such as the elderly...Conclusions: The results indicate that carotenoid supplementation decreases DNA damage and that a combination of carotenoids (4 mg each of lutein, ß-carotene, and lycopene), an intake that can be achieved by diet, or a larger dose (12 mg) of individual carotenoids exerts protection against DNA damage.