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The Nutrition InvestigatorThe health and nutrition blog by Dr. Roc Ordman.

AJCN December, 2009

by Roc (click here for full post)

SUMMARY See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles further down this page at DETAILS . Sorry this is so long. Here is plenty to enhance your life during the holiday season.

EVERYONE
1. Study of 90,000 finds amount and type of fat intake unrelated to weight gain -We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain. But MUFA (e.g.olive oil) instead of saturated fat (SFA e.g. butter) reduces inflammation and metabolic syndrome.
2. Being short on sleep decreases exercise and promotes obesity
3. Dietary protein does not effect bone strength – Overall, the authors could find little support for a negative relation between dietary protein and bone. Our understanding of the role that dietary calcium and vitamin D plays in skeletal health has grown tremendously. Let us make it a goal to add a small protein source to the “tea and toast” meals of many of our frail older adults.
4. Green tea associated with less depression – Green tea beneficial effects: anti–stress response, antiinflammatory effects, and a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms.
5. Organic foods have many nutritional and health advantages
6. Mediterranean diet promotes health -improves insulin resistance, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides and HDL
7.Plasma Triglycerides reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs e.g. plant oils) in diet
8. Risk of macular degeneration 30% lowers in those with highest omega-3 [fish oil] diet

PREGNANCY AND BIRTH
9. Evaluation of how much weight to gain during pregnancy – Background: Gestational weight gain (GWG) has been shown to be directly associated with birth weight.
10. Birth weight affects puberty and disease risk – Background: Early age at puberty onset may predispose an individual to many currently prevalent diseases, including cancer and adiposity. Results: Children who weighed between 2500 and <3000 g at birth were {approx}7 mo younger at puberty than were the other children
11. Design for a prenatal nutritional supplement

CHILDREN
12. Multivitamins for infants may reduce allergic disease at school age
13. Milk intake correlates with reduced youth weight gain – We showed no association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, juice consumption, and adolescent weight gain over a 5-y period. A direct association between diet beverages and weight gain appeared to be explained by dieting practices. Adolescents who consumed little or no white milk gained significantly more weight than their peers who consumed white milk.

MATURE ADULTS
14. Elderly must be careful to get enough vitamin B12 – This is the primary cause why 1.4% have pernicious anemia.
15. It is important to maintain your muscles as you age

OBESITY – please see first study for everyone about fat intake
16. Increased energy intake explains obesity epidemic. Decreased intake and increased exercise could reverse it
17. MUFA dramatically reduces obesity in sensitive people – The protective effect was only present when MUFA (especially found in olive oil) intake was >13.2% of energy. The deleterious effect of gene variants on waist circumference was only found with high saturated fatty acid intakes (>11.8%).
18. About 1 in 5 people have a gene prompting overeating of fatty foods
19. Fish oil reduces serum triglycerides and obesity [study of HIV]

AJCN December, 2009 -DETAILS

EVERYONE 1. Study of 90,000 finds amount and type of fat intake unrelated to weight gain – Background: It is unclear from the inconsistent epidemiologic evidence whether dietary fat intake is associated with future weight change. We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women…Conclusions: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain. But MUFA (e.g.olive oil) instead of saturated fat (SFA e.g. butter) reduces inflammation and metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: Consumption of an SFA diet resulted in a proinflammatory “obesity-linked” gene expression profile, whereas consumption of a MUFA diet caused a more antiinflammatory profile. This suggests that replacement of dietary SFA with MUFA could prevent adipose tissue inflammation and may reduce the risk of inflammation-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome.

2. Being short on sleep decreases exercise and promotes obesity – Short sleep duration is correlated with an increased risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease…Conclusions: In contrast to our expectation, short-term sleep loss neither increased food intake nor affected concentrations of the hunger-regulating hormones leptin and ghrelin. However, the observed decrease in daytime physical activity may point to another potentially important behavioral mechanism for the health-impairing influence of sleep loss.

3. Dietary protein does not effect bone strength – Overall, the authors could find little support for a negative relation between dietary protein and bone. Our understanding of the role that dietary calcium and vitamin D plays in skeletal health has grown tremendously over the past several decades, and there is general consensus that both nutrients are important and beneficial. In contrast, despite intensive investigation, the effect of dietary protein on calcium metabolism and bone balance remains controversial. Further complicating the debate are the potential differences between animal and vegetable sources of protein. Diets high in protein have generally been considered to be detrimental to bone because the resultant endogenous fixed acid load (that results from amino acid metabolism) cannot be completely neutralized by the aging kidney and requires buffering in bone. This, in turn, releases calcium from the skeleton, which causes bone loss. Several arguments have been raised that contradict the above hypothesis that dietary protein is “bad to the bone” (6). In the meantime, let us make it a goal to add a small protein source to the “tea and toast” meals of many of our frail older adults.

4. Green tea associated with less depression – Background: Green tea is reported to have various beneficial effects (eg, anti–stress response and antiinflammatory effects) on human health. Conclusion: A more frequent consumption of green tea was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in the community-dwelling older population.

5. Organic foods have many nutritional and health advantages [letter one] [letter two] – I am writing in response to the recent article by Dangour et al (1). As you may be aware, this article excited a great deal of media interest because it seemed to imply that there was no significant difference between organic and conventionally raised meats and vegetables …But then comes the loaded term organic. Whereas organic does indeed mean that the farmer is avoiding the use of synthetic pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, primarily it means that the farmer cares deeply about the entire ecosystem of his or her farm—the plants, the animals, the water, the air and soil—and wants to be part of the process of making life abundant for them all, forever. A team of scientists convened by The Organic Center (OC) carried out a similar review that was limited to plant-based foods (4). The OC methods and results differ significantly from those of Dangour et al. Across 11 measured nutrients, organic foods contained, on average, 25% higher concentrations of nutrients. For 6 of these 11 nutrients, concentrations in the organic foods averaged ≥10% higher; the conventional foods were ≥10% higher for only one beneficial nutrient (protein). For reasons noted below, we think the OC methodology was more rigorous and representative of actual differences in contemporary foods.

6. Mediterranean diet promotes health – Results: A higher Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score was associated with lower homeostasis model assessment–insulin resistance (P = 0.02), waist circumference (P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.03), and triglycerides (P < 0.001) and higher HDL cholesterol (P = 0.02)

7. Triglycerides reduced by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs e.g. plant oils) in diet – Conclusion: Plasma PUFAs may modulate the susceptibility to Metabolic Syndrome that is conferred by C3 polymorphisms, which suggests novel gene-nutrient interactions.

8. Risk of macular degeneration 30% lowers in those with highest omega-3 [fish oil] diet

PREGNANCY AND BIRTH 9. Evaluation of how much weight to gain during pregnancy – Background: Gestational weight gain (GWG) has been shown to be directly associated with birth weight. Results: The estimated optimal GWG ranges as defined by a joint predicted risk of ≤20% were substantially wider than those recommended by the Institute of Medicine for underweight (8–25 compared with 12.5–18.0 kg) and normal-weight (2–18 compared with 11.5–16.0 kg) women. Overweight and obese women’s optimal GWG ranged from –7 to 12 and –15 to 2 kg, respectively (Institute of Medicine recommendations: 7.0–11.5 and 5.0–9.0 kg, respectively). We observed considerable effect modifications by parity and smoking in pregnancy. In normal-weight primiparae, for example, the optimal GWG range was 10–26 kg for nonsmokers compared with 23–27 kg for smokers.

10. Birth weight affects puberty and disease risk – Background: Early age at puberty onset may predispose an individual to many currently prevalent diseases, including cancer and adiposity. Results: Children who weighed between 2500 and <3000 g at birth were {approx}7 mo younger at ATO than were the other children). Children who had gained weight rapidly between birth and 24 mo experienced ATO 4 mo earlier than those who had gained weight normally. Rapid weight gain was also associated with an earlier APHV and, in girls, with an earlier menarche . Adjustment for body mass index SD score or body fat percentage 1, 2, or 3 y before ATO did not account for these effects.

11. Design for a prenatal nutritional supplement

CHILDREN 12. Multivitamins for infants may reduce allergic disease at school age – Conclusion: Our results show no association between current use of multivitamins and risk of allergic disease but suggest that supplementation with multivitamins during the first years of life may reduce the risk of allergic disease at school age.

13. Milk intake correlates with reduced youth weight gain – Background: Obesity in adolescence has been increasing in the past several decades. Beverage habits among adolescents include increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and decreased consumption of milk. Conclusions: We showed no association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, juice consumption, and adolescent weight gain over a 5-y period. A direct association between diet beverages and weight gain appeared to be explained by dieting practices. Adolescents who consumed little or no white milk gained significantly more weight than their peers who consumed white milk.

MATURE ADULTS 14. Elderly must be careful to get enough vitamin B12 – Twelve years of mandatory food fortification with folic acid (FA), during which widespread self-supplementation pushed FA intake even higher, have nurtured questions about risks to persons with cobalamin deficiency but generated little meaningful data until just recently. In 2007 analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES) data linked higher folate concentrations with worse methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine indexes of metabolic deficiency in cobalamin-deficient adults (1). A companion analysis of an elderly NHANES cohort indicated that cognition and, curiously, anemia were also worse in that setting, whereas higher folate concentrations were associated with better cognition when cobalamin was normal (2). This is the primary cause why 1.4% have pernicious anemia.

15. It is important to maintain your muscles as you age

OBESITY – please see first study for everyone about fat intake 16. Increased energy intake explains obesity epidemic. Decreased intake and increased exercise could reverse it – The major drivers of the obesity epidemic are much debated and have considerable policy importance for the population-wide prevention of obesity. Conclusions: Increased energy intake appears to be more than sufficient to explain weight gain in the US population. A reversal of the increase in energy intake of {approx}2000 kJ/d (500 kcal/d=500 Calories/day) for adults and of 1500 kJ/d (350 kcal/d) for children would be needed for a reversal to the mean body weights of the 1970s. Alternatively, large compensatory increases in physical activity (eg, 110–150 min of walking/d), or a combination of both, would achieve the same outcome.

17. MUFA dramatically reduces obesity in sensitive people – Background: Disruption of the circadian system may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The protective effect of the minor allele on insulin sensitivity was only present when MUFA (especially found in olive oil) intake was >13.2% of energy. The deleterious effect of gene variants on waist circumference was only found with high saturated fatty acid intakes (>11.8%).

18. About 1 in 5 people have a gene prompting overeating of fatty foods – Conclusions: Children and adolescents with 1 or 2 FTO rs9939609 obesity-risk alleles report more frequent Loss of control eating episodes and select foods higher in fat at a buffet meal.

19. Fish oil reduces serum triglycerides and obesity [study of HIV]- Background: Elevated serum triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations have been reported in persons with HIV. Conclusions: Diet and n–3 fatty acid supplementation dramatically reduced serum triglycerides, decreased arachidonic acid in the phospholipids fraction, and appeared to decrease the de novo lipogenesis associated with the metabolic syndrome in the intervention group.

There’s going to be three more messages this month. I will be sharing links to research posters on a variety of topics completed this semester, a summary of the latest Linus Pauling Institute Nutrition Newsletter, and a link to my recently accepted peer-reviewed publication reviewing evidence of the effects of taking vitamin C twice a day.
*To be added or removed from the nutrition research Email List . *To review the disclaimer. *To ask Roc a question.

“The question of consciousness has been rather like the holy grail of neuroscience” = M. Gazzaniga, Human pg 278

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