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The Nutrition InvestigatorThe health and nutrition blog by Dr. Roc Ordman.


by Roc (click here for full post)


It is against Federal law to make health claims for nutritional supplements, until one completes clinical trials and pays lawyers to petition for FDA approval. So there are rarely claims for the scientifically proven benefits of various vitamins and the like. Few claims can be made for vitamins K1 and C, and none for the combination.  However, below are some quotations from the peer-reviewed scientific literature [referenced below] that you are invited to discuss with your physician.

    “Despite more than 2.4 million papers published on cancer research to date, conventional medicine has largely failed to identify safe, low-cost, effective methods of cancer intervention and prevention. Mizuta T, Ozaki I. Clinical application of vitamin K for hepatocellular carcinoma.” [1]


Bladder cancer was the ninth most common malignancy worldwide, with 430,000 newly diagnosed cases in 2012. In Europe, a total of 118,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths were estimated in the same year. Its high prevalence, in conjunction with its vulnerability to multiple recurrences and progression despite local therapy, leads to a substantial health service burden4. Leal and colleagues4 recently estimated that bladder cancer cost €4.9 billion in the European Union in 2012 [14].

Two Grams BID Is an Oral Dosage of Vitamin C to Reduce the Risk of Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma “Vitamin C above 2 g twice a day was not absorbed. But that intake produced a bladder [AA] above 1 mM in all participants. Conclusion: Taking 2 g of AA BID will increase [AA] in the bladder to a level likely to kill cancer cells that cause SBC. Taking that dosage 2 consecutive days a week is likely to reduce the recurrence rate of SBC substantially.” [2]

More fears about vitamin C proven wrong!  Some research 3 years ago suggested a mechanism by which vitamin C might cause harm. New research in PNAS shows that mechanism actually can prevent genetic damage by removing peroxidized lipids, and “may explain in part how the vitamin helps prevent diseases like cancer and heart disease.” –  [3]


Vitamin K helps make four of the 13 proteins needed for blood clotting. Its role in maintaining the clotting cascade is so important that people who take anticoagulants such as warfarin (Coumadin) must be careful to keep their vitamin K intake stable.  Lately, researchers have demonstrated that vitamin K is also involved in building bone. Low levels of circulating vitamin K have been linked with low bone density, and supplementation with vitamin K shows improvements in biochemical measures of bone health. (1) A report from the Nurses’ Health Study suggests that women who get at least 110 micrograms of vitamin K a day are 30 percent less likely to break a hip than women who get less than that.  [4]      

Vitamin K help cardiac rhythm. Vitamin K activates the protein osteocalcin, which strengthens bone mass, but decalcifies soft tissues like arterial walls reducing blood pressure. [5]

        A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer’s disease consumed less vitamin K than did cognitively intact control subjects [6] 
        “For most of mankind’s existence, scientists wallowed in lethal ignorance regarding the critical need for humans to supplement with enough vitamin D. We fear the same knowledge deficit exists today regarding vitamin K.” [7]
        Like dietary lipids and other fat-soluble vitamins, ingested vitamin K is incorporated into mixed micelles via the action of bile and pancreatic enzymes, and it is absorbed by enterocytes of the small intestine [8]. …
        Compared to the other fat-soluble vitamins, very small amounts of vitamin K circulate in the blood.Vitamin K is rapidly metabolized and excreted. Based on phylloquinone measurements, the body retains only about 30% to 40% of an oral physiological dose, while about 20% is excreted in the urine and 40% to 50% in the feces via bile [9]

Can Too Much Vitamin k2 be harmful? Kidney disease: Too much vitamin K can be harmful if you are receiving dialysis treatments due to kidney disease. … In fact, high doses of vitamin K can make clotting problems worse in these people. [10]

“menadione is a physiological human metabolite that could be measured in the urine. Daily excretion of menadione [vitamin K3] was of the order of 5 μg, but this was increased when exogenous doses of phylloquinone [K1, MK-7, or MK-4 [K2] were given by the oral route but not when given by the s.c. route, despite the latter being efficiently released into the plasma compartment.“ [11]


The association of vitamins C and K3 kills cancer cells mainly by autoschizis, a novel form of cell death. Basis for their potential use as coadjuvants in anticancer therapy.” Deficiency of alkaline and acid DNase is a hallmark in all non-necrotic cancer cells in animals and humans. These enzymes are reactivated at early stages of cancer cell death by vitamin C (acid DNase) and vitamin K(3) (alkaline DNase). Moreover, the coadministration of these vitamins (in a ratio of 100:1, for C and K(3), respectively) produced selective cancer cell death.  [12]

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of oral Apatone® (Vitamin C and Vitamin K3) administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in patients who failed standard therapy.  Conclusion: Apatone showed promise in delaying biochemical progression in this group of end stage prostate cancer patients. [13]


Chromium has long been of interest for its possible connection to various health conditions. Among the most active areas of chromium research are its use in supplement form to treat diabetes, lower blood lipid levels, promote weight loss, and improve body composition.[15]


Turmeric extract from the rhizomes, commonly called curcuminoids, is mainly composed of curcumin. The research on curcumin has received considerable attention due to its pronounced anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immunomodulating, anti-atherogenic, and anti-carcinogenic activities. [16]

Turmeric curcumin can help promote healthy joints, keep our hearts in top shape, and maintain our cognitive functioning. Researchers are also suggesting that, when taken as a supplement, it can help keep our immune system balanced and working correctly [18-20]


Extensive epidemiological evidence and animal experimental studies suggest that cruciferous vegetables may prevent or delay various inflammatory disorders, including cancers. Much of this chemopreventive effect has been attributed to the physiological effect of the isothiocyanates, especially sulforaphane (SF). Sulforaphane has been proven as a potent protector against oxidative damage and carcinogens. A plethora of clinical effects are reported in various experimental diseases as well as human clinical studies. [17]


[1] Mizuta [2007] T, Ozaki I. Clinical application of vitamin K for hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Calcium. 17(11):1693-9.

[2] Folk [2015] E, Downs TM, Ordman A “Roc”. Two Grams BID Is an Oral Dosage of Vitamin C to Reduce the Risk of Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma. J Cancer Therapy 6: 169-176.

[3] C&E News Dec 20, 2004

[4] https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/vitamin-k/

[5] LPI meeting 2009; Lin [2008] PH, Batch B, Svetkey LP. Nutrition, lifestyle and hypertension. In Coulston, A & Boushey, C, eds. Nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2008.

[6] Presse [2008] N et al. Low vitamin K intakes in community-dwelling elders at an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Diet Assoc. 108:2095-9.

[7] The Remarkable Anticancer Properties of Vitamin K – Life Extension Magazine, 2010

[8] Iqbal [2009] J, Hussain M. Intestinal lipid absorption. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Jun; 296(6): E1183–E1194

[9] Sep 26, 2018; Vitamin K — Health Professional Fact Sheet; https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminK-HealthProfessional/

[10] Yuan [2017] TF, Wang ST, Li Y. Quantification of menadione from plasma and urine by a novel cysteamine- derivatization based UPLC–MS/MS method. Journal of Chromatography B 1063: 107-111

[11] Shearer [2012] MJ, Fu X,  Booth SL.  Vitamin K Nutrition, Metabolism, and Requirements: Current Concepts and Future Research. Adv Nutrition 3: 182–195.

[12] Verrax [2003] J, Cadrobbi J, Delvaux M, et al. The association of vitamins C and K3 kills cancer cells mainly by autoschizis, a novel form of cell death. Basis for their potential use as coadjuvants in anticancer therapy. Eur J Med Chem. 38(5):451-7.

[13] Tareen [2008] B, Summers JL, Jamison JM, et al. A 12 week, open label, phase I/IIa study using apatone for the treatment of prostate cancer patients who have failed standard therapy. Int J Med Sci. 5(2):62-7.

[14] Wong [2018] MCS et al, The global epidemiology of bladder cancer: a joinpoint regression analysis of its incidence and mortality trends and projection. Sci Rep 8: 1129.

[15] NIH [2019] Chromium: Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Chromium-HealthProfessional/

[16] Sarkar FH [2010] et al. The role of nutraceuticals in the regulation of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling in cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev.  29(3): 383–394.

[17] Elbarbry [2011] F, Elrody N. Potential health benefits of sulforaphane: A review of the experimental, clinical and epidemiological evidences and underlying mechanisms. J Medicinal Plants Research 5: 473-484

[18] Menon [2007] VP, Sudheer AR Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory Properties of Curcumin In: Aggarwal B.B., Surh YJ., Shishodia S. (eds) The Molecular Targets and Therapeutic Uses of Curcumin in Health and Disease. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol 595. Springer, Boston, MA

[19] Gupta [2013] SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB Therapeutic Roles of Curcumin: Lessons Learned from Clinical Trials. The AAPS Journal, 15(1), 195–218.

[20] Jagetia [2007] GC, Aggarwal BB Spicing up” of the immune system by curcumin.. J Clin Immunol. 27 (1): 19-35. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

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